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      英語世界
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      雙語:How to Get Really Rich
      發布時間:2021年04月30日     發布人:nanyuzi  
      來源: New York Times
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      How to Get Really Rich

      美國發財致富指南


      I know money can’t buy you love, but wouldn’t it be nice to have enough money to buy whatever else you want?


      我知道金錢買不來愛情,但是如果手里有大把錢,想買什么就買什么,這不是很好嗎?


      I’m here to help you to help you!


      我是來幫你幫自己一把的!


      The most likely way to become rich is to try to get into a line of work that’s hard to get into, particularly if the people in that profession are the ones setting the rules for entry.


      最有可能發財的辦法就是嘗試進入一個很難進入的行業,尤其是如果這個行業的人就是制定入行規則的人。


      For example, if you want to become rich, tech may be a less likely way than you suppose. In 2019, about 2.4 percent of software developers made it to the top one percent of earners. As the economist Jonathan Rothwell points out in his superb book, “A Republic of Equals,” as of 2015 there were nearly eight times as many software developers in this country as there were dentists, but nearly as many dentists in the top one percent as there were software developers.


      比方說,如果你想發財,科技可能不像你想的那么靠譜。2019年,約有2.4%的軟件開發人員進入收入最高的1%人群。正如經濟學家喬納森·羅斯韋爾(Jonathan Rothwell)在他的杰作《平等共和國》(A Republic of Equals)中指出的那樣,截至2015年,這個國家的軟件開發人員數量幾乎是牙醫的8倍,但在收入排名前1%的人群中,牙醫人數幾乎和軟件開發人員人數一樣多。


      The odds are also against you if you go into the STEM professions. Just about 2.2 percent of electrical engineers made it to the top one percent, just about 3.3 percent of chemical engineers did and about 0.8 percent of industrial engineers did. The arts aren’t so hot either. Even just among people who manage to make a living as an actor, a director or a producer, just about 2.1 percent made it to the tippy top.


      如果你進入STEM(指科學、技術、工程和數學相關領域——譯注)職業,機會也不太好。只有2.2%的電氣工程師、3.3%的化學工程師和0.8%的工業工程師進入收入排名前1%的行列。藝術也不太行。即使是在那些能以演員、導演或制片人身份謀生的人當中,也只有2.1%的人能進入頂峰。


      What’s wrong with all these professions? That’s simple: These are highly competitive, innovative and productive industries where global competition drives down earnings. You want to go into a profession protected by strong professional organizations and state legislators who will shield you from global competition and productivity growth.


      這些職業都有什么問題?很簡單:這些都是高度競爭、高度創新和高產的行業,全球競爭壓低了這些行業的利潤。你還是得進入一個受到強大專業組織和州議員保護的職業,他們會保護你免受全球競爭和生產力增長的影響。


      So what profession is most likely to get you rich? Medicine! You get to save lives and make bank all at once! One third of doctors overall, including about 58.6 percent of surgeons, are in the top one percent of earners. There are more doctors and surgeons in the top one percent than any other job category. According to Rothwell’s book, in Spain, Sweden and Iceland, doctors earn twice as much as the average worker, but in the United States physicians and surgeons earn nearly five times as much.


      那么,什么職業最有可能發財致富呢?醫學!又能救人又能賺大錢!三分之一的醫生,包括58.6%的外科醫生,都屬于收入最高的1%。在收入最頂端的1%人群中,內科醫生和外科醫生比其他任何職業都要多。根據羅斯韋爾的書,在西班牙、瑞典和冰島,醫生的收入是普通工人的兩倍,但在美國,內科醫生和外科醫生的收入幾乎是普通工人的五倍。

       高收入

      Why is that? First, there’s our screwed-up health care system in which nearly 18 percent of gross domestic product flows into medicine and disproportionately toward a relatively small number of doctors. Second, there are huge barriers of entry into that profession – including, of course, the strenuous education that’s required. The number of medical school students is limited. In 2018-2019, only 41 percent of applicants who applied to medical school actually got into one. Plus, a 1997 federal law capped the number of residency slots that Medicare funds would support.


      為什么會這樣呢?首先是我們一團糟的醫療保健系統,近18%的國內生產總值流向了醫療體系,并且不成比例地流向了相對較少的醫生。其次,進入這個行業有巨大的壁壘——當然包括所需的艱苦教育。醫學院的學生數量有限。在2018-2019年,醫學院的申請者中只有41%被錄取。另外,1997年的一項聯邦法律對醫療保險基金支持的住院醫師名額設置了上限。


      It typically takes a minimum of 11 years of difficult training to become a doctor, costing hundreds of thousands of dollars. Once you’re a doctor, you are protected by state laws from competition from lower cost workers. Rothwell cites research suggesting that nurse practitioners and dental hygienists can perform many duties now done by doctors and dentists, at lower cost.


      一般來說,要成為一名醫生至少需要11年的艱苦訓練,花費數十萬美元。一旦成為醫生,你就會受到州法律的保護,不受低成本工人的競爭。羅斯韋爾引用的研究表明,執業護士和潔牙師能以更低的成本完成許多現在由醫生和牙醫完成的工作。


      If you’re squeamish around blood, you can go into law. Census data for 2019 shows that about 14.5 percent of lawyers are in the top one percent of earners. And for some of the same reasons: high barriers to entry, limits on competition from less costly alternatives and limits on innovation. For example, in most states it’s illegal for a nonlawyer to own a law firm. If some MBA has an innovative idea for how to streamline practices, she is not allowed to start a firm and use that idea.


      如果你暈血,還可以進入法律行業。2019年的人口普查數據顯示,約14.5%的律師屬于收入最高的1%人群。一些原因是相同的:高準入門檻,限制來自低成本替代品的競爭,限制創新。例如,在大多數州,非律師擁有律師事務所是違法的。如果某個MBA有一個關于精簡事務的創新想法,她是不會被允許成立一家律所并且將這個想法付諸實踐的。


      If that doesn’t float your boat, try getting a job in venture capital, hedge funds or private equity. Don’t go into consumer banking. Companies with low-fee options, like those introduced by Vanguard, can’t pay the big bucks. The real money is in managing those higher-end investment vehicles to which only rich people and institutions have had easy access. For reasons that seem to mystify everyone, pension fund managers are willing to pay ridiculously high fees to people in those professions, so there are tons of money to be made. About 5 percent of financial managers are in the top 1 percent of earners.


      如果這還不能讓你心動,那就試著在風險投資、對沖基金或私募股權公司找一份工作。不要和消費銀行沾邊。像先鋒集團(Vanguard)推出的那種低收費選項的公司,是不可能支付大筆費用的。要想賺大錢,就得去管理那些只有富人和機構才能輕易獲得的高端投資工具。出于讓所有人都感到困惑的原因,養老基金經理愿意向這些行業的人支付高得離譜的費用,所以有大筆錢可賺。大約5%的理財經理屬于收入最高的1%人群。


      Once you’ve made some money, there’s one more way to get richer. Buy a home in a neighborhood with a lot of zoning restrictions. For example, 84 percent of the land in Charlotte, N.C., and 94 percent of the land in San Jose, Calif., is zoned for detached single-family homes. These restrictions keep the supply of housing low and jack up the value of homes for people wealthy enough to already own one.


      一旦你賺了一些錢,還有一個辦法可以讓你變得更有錢——在有一大堆分區限制的社區買房。例如,北卡羅來納州夏洛特市84%的土地和加利福尼亞州圣何塞市94%的土地都被劃為獨立式獨棟住宅。這些限制措施使住房供應保持在較低水平,并且抬高了已經擁有住房的富人的房屋價值。


      My main message is that if you want to get rich, don’t invent a new and useful product, start a company and try to sell it. That seems risky. Put the effort into entering a clubby line of work in which legislators and professional associations are working to make you rich. It’s easier!


      我想要傳達的主要信息是,如果你想發財,那就不要發明一種新的有用的產品,或者開一家公司,然后試著把它賣出去。這似乎有風險。還是努力進入一個俱樂部式的行當,這樣立法者和專業協會都會努力幫你發財。這樣更容易!


      The only problem would be if legislators undo rules that make the rich richer. For example, in California this week, the Berkeley City Council began dismantling the single-family zoning restrictions that keep the housing market tight. If that sort of thing continues, only people who win free and fair competitions will get rich. That’s not the American way!


      唯一的問題是,立法者是否會撤銷那些讓富人更富的規則。例如,本周在加州,伯克利市議會開始廢除令住房市場緊張的獨棟住宅分區限制。如果這種情況繼續下去,只有那些在自由和公平競爭中獲勝的人才會發財。那可不是美國的方式!


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