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      雙語:中國的發展及其對愛爾蘭的意義
      發布時間:2021年11月18日     發布人: nanyuzi
      來源: 駐愛爾蘭使館
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      中國的發展及其對愛爾蘭的意義

      China’s Development and Its Implication for Ireland


      何向東大使在《愛爾蘭時報》發表署名文章

      He Xiangdong Published an Article on the Irish Times

      2021年7月1日

      1 July 2021


      一百年前的1921年7月,愛爾蘭人民正迎來獨立戰爭重要勝利之際,來自中國各地的13名代表在上海、嘉興召開會議,成立了中國共產黨。當時的中國同愛爾蘭一樣,貧窮落后,在外來壓迫與剝削下竭力抗爭。

      100 years ago, in July 1921, when Ireland was emerging victorious from the War of Independence, thirteen delegates from different areas of China met in Shanghai and then in Jiaxing and established the Communist Party of China. At that time, China, like Ireland, remained poor and backward and was struggling against foreign oppression and exploitation.


      一百年來,中國共產黨團結帶領中國人民進行革命和國家建設,結束了舊中國半殖民地半封建社會的歷史,實現了中國從幾千年封建專制向人民民主的偉大轉變,實現了中國人民從站起來、富起來到強起來的偉大飛躍。1949年新中國成立之時,中國經濟總量僅占全球的4.5%;到2020年,這個數字已經達到17%。從1949年至今,中國人均預期壽命從35歲提高到77.3歲。中國用全球9%的耕地養育了世界20%的人口。

      Over the 100 years since then, the CPC has been rallying the Chinese people, leading them in revolution and nation-building, and putting an end to the semi-colonial, semi-feudal society of the old China. This led to the country’s great transformation from a millennia-old feudal autocracy to a people’s democracy. Since then the Chinese people have gone from regaining their dignity to becoming prosperous and strong. For example, in 1949, when the People’s Republic was founded, China’s share of global GDP was less than 4.5%, but by 2020 it had increased to 17%; also, the average life expectancy in China was 35 years, while now it is over 77.3 years. Notably, China has been successfully feeding over 20 percent of the world’s population with only 9 percent of the world’s arable land.


      中國共產黨在一路前行中贏得了中國人民的堅定支持。哈佛大學肯尼迪政府學院阿什民主治理與創新中心2003至2016年的8次民調顯示,中國民眾對中國政府滿意度甚高。2016年,即該系列民調的最后一年,93.1%的受訪民眾對中央政府感到滿意。加利福尼亞大學中國數據實驗室開展的另一項民調顯示,中國民眾對政府的信任值從2019年6月的8.23分上升到2020年5月的8.87分(滿分為10分),83%的受訪者更愿意生活在當代中國的政治制度下。

      All along the way, the CPC has gained solid support from the Chinese people. A series of surveys conducted in eight waves from 2003 to 2016 by the Ash Center of Harvard University’s John F. Kennedy School of Government indicates that, overall, Chinese people have very high levels of satisfaction with their government. In 2016, the last year the survey was conducted, 93.1 percent of respondents were satisfied with central government. Another survey, by the University of California’s China Data Lab, shows that the Chinese public’s trust in their government, measured on a scale of 1-10, increased from 8.23 in June 2019 to 8.87 in May 2020. The survey also found that 83% of respondents prefer living under China’s current political system.


      中國共產黨領導的中國政府為什么能贏得中國人民的衷心擁護和堅定支持?其原因眾多,其中包括以下三個方面:

      Why does the Chinese government led by the CPC hold such solid support from the Chinese people? There are many factors underpinning this support. However, the following three are particularly worth noting:


      首先,致力于為人民謀幸福、為國家謀發展。中國共產黨領導的中國政府堅持全心全意為人民服務的根本宗旨,把人民擁護不擁護、贊成不贊成、高興不高興、答應不答應作為衡量一切工作得失的根本標準。人民對美好生活的向往,就是中國政府的奮斗目標。

      Firstly, commitment to the well-being of the Chinese people and the development of the country. The government led by the CPC adheres to its fundamental purpose of serving the people, and takes the support, approval, happiness and consent of the people as fundamental criteria for judging all its work. To meet the people’s aspiration for a better life is a fundamental goal of the Chinese government.


      中華人民共和國成立以來,中國政府在改善中國人民生活方面的成就超過中國歷史上的任何一個政府。新中國成立70多年來,超過8.5億中國人成功脫貧,中等收入群體逾4億人;1949至2020年,中國國內生產總值從123億美元增至15萬億美元,人均國內生產總值從不到30美元增至1萬多美元。中國已成為世界第二大經濟體、第一大工業國、第一大貨物貿易國。過去10多年,中國對世界經濟增長的貢獻率一直超過20%。根據國際貨幣基金組織2021年4月《世界經濟展望》報告,這一趨勢將延續至2026年。

      Since the founding of the People’s Republic, the Chinese government has done a better job in improving Chinese people’s livelihood than any other government in Chinese history. Over the last 70 plus years, over 850 million Chinese have been lifted out of poverty, and 400 million people are now classified as middle-income earners. China’s GDP has risen from 12.3 billion USD in 1949 to 15 trillion USD in 2020, and its per capita GDP from less than 30 USD to over 10,000 USD. Now China is the world’s second-largest economy, its largest manufacturing country, and the largest commodity trading nation. For more than a decade, China’s contribution to world economic growth has been over 20 percent. This trend will continue in the five years through 2026, according to the International Monetary Fund’s World Economic Outlook report in April 2021.


      2020年初新冠肺炎疫情暴發以來,中國政府堅持以人民為中心,把人民生命安全和身體健康放在第一位,迅速采取了一系列措施防控疫情、救治病患,不放棄每一個生命,相關醫療費用全部由國家承擔。習近平主席強調:“為了保護人民生命安全,我們什么都可以豁得出來!”中國政府舉國動員抗擊疫情,組織全國各地346支國家醫療隊、42600多名醫務人員、965名公共衛生人員馳援位于疫情防控主戰場的湖北和武漢。中國有效協調應對新冠肺炎疫情,在短時間內使人民生活和國家經濟運行恢復正常。

      Since the Covid-19 pandemic broke out in early 2020, the Chinese government has taken a people-centered approach and put people’s lives and health first. It swiftly adopted a series of measures on prevention and control of the virus and treatment of the infected, not giving up on any life, and covering all medical costs for Covid-19 patients. As Chinese President Xi Jinping stressed, “We will do whatever it takes to protect people’s lives!” The Government mobilized the whole country to tackle the pandemic. A total of 346 medical teams, composing 42,600 medical workers and 965 public health workers from across the country, were dispatched to Hubei and Wuhan, the epicentre of China’s coronavirus outbreak. China has effectively coordinated a strong Covid-19 response, normalized people’s life and revived its economy within a short time span.


      其次,致力于奉行獨立自主的和平外交政策。中國有著遭受外國侵略的沉痛記憶,更能深刻理解和平對國家和人民重要意義。中國堅定不移地走和平發展道路。近年來,著眼于風云變幻的國際形勢,中國提出了推動構建新型國際關系、推動構建人類命運共同體等重要主張。

      Secondly, commitment to an independent foreign policy of peace. With the painful memory of suffering from foreign aggression and a deep understanding of what peace means for a country and its people, China is determined to adhere to the path of peaceful development. In recent years, in view of changes in the international context, China has proposed important ideas, such as building a new type of international relations, and a global community with a shared future for mankind.


      新中國成立70多年來,中國從未主動挑起一場戰爭,并將和平發展寫進憲法。中國永遠不稱霸、不擴張、不謀求勢力范圍,不搞軍備競賽。中國是聯合國第二大會費國、聯合國維和行動第二大出資國和安理會“五?!敝信沙鼍S和人員最多的國家。中國恪守普遍公認的國際法則,已加入600多項國際公約。我們堅持反對恃強凌弱,主張對話而不是沖突、協商而不是脅迫、共贏而不是零和。

      Over more than 70 years since the founding of the People’s Republic, China has never provoked a war against other countries and has codified peaceful development in its Constitution. China has solemnly announced that it will never seek hegemony, expansion, or sphere of influence, nor will it ever engage in an arms race. China is the second-largest contributor to the UN’s regular budget, the second-largest contributor to the UN peacekeeping operations fund, and the largest contributor of peacekeepers among the five permanent members of the UN Security Council. China observes universally recognized international law and norms, and accedes to more than 600 international conventions. China stands firmly against bullying practices and advocates that dialogue, consultation and win-win cooperation should prevail over confrontation, coercion and zero-sum game.


      第三,致力于推進互惠互利的國際合作。中國發展從不以犧牲他國利益為代價。中國堅持多邊主義,致力于維護以聯合國為核心的國際體系、以國際法為基礎的國際秩序、以世界貿易組織為核心的多邊貿易體制。

      Thirdly, commitment to international cooperation and mutual benefit. China’s development has never been at the expense of other countries’ interests. China adheres to multilateralism and remains firm in upholding the international system with the UN as its core, the international order based on international law and the multilateral trading system with the World Trade Organization as its core.


      中國已與170多個國家和國際組織簽署了200多份共建“一帶一路”合作文件,對相關國家直接投資超過1300億美元。世界銀行報告認為,共建“一帶一路”將使相關國家760萬人擺脫極端貧困、3200萬人擺脫中度貧困。

      China has signed more than 200 Belt and Road Initiative cooperation documents with over 170 countries and international organizations, and has invested more than 130 billion USD in partnership countries. According to a World Bank analysis, the Belt and Road Initiative will lift 7.6 million people out of extreme poverty and 32 million out of moderate poverty in the participating countries.


      當前,中國正構建以以國內大循環為主體、國內國際雙循環相互促進的新發展格局。中國將積極與各國開展合作,形成更加全方位、多層次、多元化的開放合作格局。

      At present, China is building a new development paradigm based on strengthening domestic market, with international markets as reinforcement. China is committed to a more active cooperation with other countries, forming an all-round, multi-levelled and diversified pattern of opening up and cooperation.


      面對全球新冠肺炎疫情,中國向150多個國家和13個國際組織提供了急需的抗疫物資,迄今已供應了2800多億只口罩、34億多件防護服、40多億份檢測試劑盒。中國向34個國家派出了37支醫療隊,幫助有關國家抗擊疫情。中國率先承諾將新冠疫苗作為全球公共產品,并已向近100個國家提供了超過4.5億劑新冠疫苗。

      Since the Covid-19 breakout, China has provided urgently needed supplies to over 150 countries and 13 international organizations, including more than 280 billion masks, 3.4 billion protective suits, and 4 billion testing kits. China has also sent 37 medical teams to 34 countries to help them tackle the pandemic. China was the first to pledge making vaccines a global public good, and has so far provided over 450 million doses of Covid-19 vaccines to nearly 100 countries.


      成功的中國給愛爾蘭帶來重要機遇。中國和愛爾蘭歷史文化不同,社會制度各異。這些差異使我們兩國人民互不相同,也使我們兩國能夠發展互利合作。正如愛爾蘭著名政治家約翰·休姆所說:“差異是人類的本質。差異是與生俱來的,因此它不應成為仇恨或沖突的根源。尊重多樣性,這是和平最基本的原則?!?

      A successful China is an important opportunity for Ireland. China and Ireland differ in history, culture and social systems. All these differences make our two peoples different from each other, and enable our two countries to develop mutually beneficial cooperation. Just as John Hume said, “Difference is the essence of humanity. Difference is an accident of birth, and it should therefore never be the source of hatred or conflict. Therein lies a most fundamental principle of peace: respect for diversity.”


      近年來,中愛關系發展勢頭強勁,各領域合作實現新發展。

      Recent years have witnessed a strong momentum in China-Ireland relations and new evolution in our wide-ranging cooperation.


      2020年,中愛兩國貨物貿易額達180.4億美元,比2019年增長7.7%。中國已成為僅次于歐盟、英國和美國的愛爾蘭第四大貿易伙伴,愛豬肉第一大出口市場,愛食品、飲料第五大出口市場。根據中國海關統計,2021年前5個月,兩國貨物貿易額84.8億美元,同比增長25.6%,其中愛爾蘭對華出口68.2億美元,同比增長24.9%。

      In 2020, bilateral trade between China and Ireland reached 18.04 billion USD, an increase of 7.7% over 2019. China became Ireland’s largest trade partner, after the EU, UK and the US, the largest export market for Irish pork, and the fifth largest export market for Irish food and drinks. According to Chinese Customs’ statistics, in the first five months of this year, our bilateral trade stood at 8.48 billion USD, an increase of 25.6% compared with the same period in 2020, and Irish exports to China reached 6.82 billion USD, an increase of 24.9%.


      兩國人民之間的交流是中愛關系的重要支柱。目前,有近5萬中國人在愛爾蘭學習、工作和生活。赴華工作和學習的愛爾蘭人逐年增加。中愛已有7對友好省郡或友好城市,兩國地方政府間的友好交流與合作更加活躍。人文、地方交流為增進兩國人民的相互了解作出了重要貢獻。漢語已于2020年被列入愛爾蘭高考課程,并將于2022年正式成為高考科目,這將為愛爾蘭人民了解中國提供一條新途徑。

      Exchange between our two peoples is a key pillar of our relations. Nowadays, nearly 50,000 Chinese are studying, working and living in Ireland. The number of Irish people who go to China for work and study is increasing year after year. There are 7 twinning relations between Chinese and Irish cities and friendly exchanges and cooperation between both local governments have become more active. These have all made significant contributions to the mutual understanding between our two peoples. The Chinese language was introduced to the curriculum for Ireland’s Leaving Certificate last year and will become a subject of Leaving Certificate Exam in 2022, which will provide a new way for Irish people to get to know China.


      進一步加強中愛合作正逢其時。中愛經濟互補性強,互利合作潛力巨大。中方歡迎愛方參與中國發展,從中國提供的重大機遇中受益。中方愿同愛方深化在貿易、農業、科技創新、人文交流等雙邊領域,以及公共衛生、氣候變化、發展援助等領域的交流與合作,在互利共贏、共同發展基礎上共創美好未來。

      Now is a good time to further strengthen China-Ireland cooperation. The Chinese and Irish economies are highly complementary, and there is great potential for mutually beneficial cooperation. China welcomes Ireland to engage in China’s development and benefit from some of the great opportunities China offers. China is ready to work with Ireland to deepen effective exchanges and cooperation in bilateral areas such as trade, agriculture, scientific and technological innovation, people-to-people exchange, as well as in public health, climate change and development assistance, thus ushering in a brighter future based on mutual benefit and common development.

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