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      雙語:探求民主本質,塑造美好未來
      發布時間:2022年03月07日     發布人: nanyuzi
      來源: 駐塞浦路斯使館
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      Exploring the Essence of Democracy to Build a Better Future

      探求民主本質,塑造美好未來

       

      Article by Ambassador Liu Yantao in Cyprus Mail

      劉彥濤大使在《塞浦路斯郵報》刊發署名文章

       

      29 August 2021

      2021年8月29日

       

      “Democracy”, a concept that runs through ancient and modern history, has presented varying connotations and denotations with the change of national conditions over the times. To better understand democracy, we must first truly grasp the essence of democracy and understand its origin and core pursuits. The term “democracy” originated from the Athenian democratic politics in the classical Greek civilization, and its original meaning was “rule of the people”. Since antiquity, it has become an important institutional means to bridge the differences between the aristocratic oligarchy and the political demands of the broad masses of citizens, thus creating the origin of western democratic political civilization. The world today is marked with chaos induced by social division, political polarization, and democratic regression. Under such circumstances, people all over the world are exploring the essence of “democracy,” in order to address practical problems, alleviate social conflict and create better conditions for people, through specific forms of democracy that are appropriate and effective.

      “民主”是一個貫穿古今的概念,自誕生以來人們對其內涵和外延的認識一直隨著時代和國情變化而變化。要搞清民主,首先須真正把握民主本質,了解民主的起源和核心追求?!懊裰鳌币辉~發源于古希臘文明中的雅典民主政治,其本義是“人民統治”。自古風時代起成為緩和貴族寡頭政治和廣大公民政治訴求的重要制度形式,以此發西方民主政治文明之濫觴。放眼當今世界,社會撕裂、政治極化和民主倒退層出不窮、亂象叢生。在此形勢下,世界人民更加迫切地希望探求“民主”本質,并通過具體而合適的、管用的民主制度形式,解決實際問題,緩和社會矛盾,創造美好生活。

       

      As ancient Chinese philosopher Mencius said, “it’s only natural for things to be different.” There are no identical democratic political systems in the world, nor is there a one-size-fits-all model for all countries. Then, what principles shall we pursue in developing and improving democracy?

      “物之不齊,物之情也?!笔澜缟喜淮嬖谕耆嗤拿裰髡沃贫?,也不存在適用于一切國家的制度和模式。那么發展和完善民主制度,需要堅持哪些原則呢?

       

      1. Accommodating to the essence of democracy

      一、發展和完善民主制度,要適應民主的本質屬性。

       

      The essence of democracy is, first of all, its people-oriented nature, meaning it is people-centered, rather than representing a specific group. Democracy should aim to alleviate the conflicts among various classes, rather than amplify or even create them. In the practice of democracy in China, the Communist Party of China (CPC), as the ruling party, has no special interests of its own. It has never represented any specific interest group, power group, or privileged class, but promotes the requirements for the development of China’s advanced productive forces, the orientation of the development of China’s advanced culture, and the fundamental interests of the overwhelming majority of the people in China. Therefore, the CPC can work together with all democratic parties to govern the country through political consultations. In his speech at the Ceremony Marking the Centenary of the CPC, President Xi Jinping said, “The CPC has in the people its roots, its lifeblood, and its source of strength. The CPC has always represented the fundamental interests of all Chinese people; it stands with them through thick and thin and shares a common fate with them.” This not only reveals the essential features of socialist democracy with Chinese characteristics, but also explains the key political code behind China’s success in achieving rapid development, political stability, and social harmony.

      民主本質屬性首先是民本性,即以人民為中心,而非代表特定階層群體,旨在緩和各階層群體間矛盾,而不是擴大矛盾或使之對立起來。在中國的民主實踐中,中國共產黨作為執政黨,沒有任何黨派私利,從來不代表任何利益集團、任何權勢團體、任何特權階層的利益,而是代表先進生產力的發展要求,代表先進文化的前進方向,代表中國最廣大人民的根本利益。所以中國共產黨能夠同所有參政民主黨派通過政治協商共同治理國家。習近平主席在慶祝中國共產黨成立100周年大會上曾講到,“中國共產黨根基在人民、血脈在人民、力量在人民。中國共產黨始終代表最廣大人民根本利益,與人民休戚與共、生死相依?!边@不僅深刻揭示了中國特色社會主義民主的本質特征,也闡釋了中國之所以能成功實現快速發展、政治穩定、社會和諧背后的核心政治密碼。

       

      The essence of democracy is also specific, that is, democracy is not formalism. It should be conducive to creating a better life for the people, ensuring good governance, and solving practical problems in a country’s political, economic and social development. In the practice of democracy in China, the CPC has creatively adopted consultative democracy, adheres to whole-process democracy with wide participation, so that the wishes and needs of the majority can be achieved and satisfied, and the reasonable wishes and needs of the minority can be fully expressed and accommodated. The practice of democracy is not limited to elections held every few years. It is also reflected in the decision-making on major issues in a country’s political, economic and social life and in people’s daily lives, which ensure that the people are the true masters of their own country with their participation and monitoring of matters affecting their lives. Taking the formulation process of the “14th Five-Year Plan” and the Long-Range Objectives Through the Year 2035 adopted in March 2021 as an example, the Chinese government collected more than 1.018 million opinions and suggestions online from all social sectors, and received thousands of proposals and suggestions via hundreds of symposiums and hearings held with local authorities, experts in various fields, democratic parties and personages without party affiliations, based on which 55 modifications were made to the draft plans. Harvard Kennedy School’s polls on China for 13 consecutive years show that the Chinese people’s satisfaction with the Chinese government and the Communist Party of China has always remained above 90%. This is the greatest affirmation of Chinese democracy.

      民主的本質屬性還包括具體性,即民主實踐不能流于形式主義,應當切實有利于給人民創造美好生活,實現良政善治,解決國家政治經濟社會發展過程中的實際問題。在中國的民主實踐中,中國共產黨創造性地采用協商民主,堅持全過程民主和廣泛民主,使多數人的意愿和要求得以落實和滿足,使少數人的合理意愿和要求得到充分表達和兼顧。民主的落實不局限在幾年一次的選舉,還體現在國家政治經濟社會發展大事的決策和人民日常生活中,真正做到人民做主、人民參與、人民監督。以2021年3月通過的“十四五”規劃和2035年遠景目標綱要編制過程為例,中國政府通過互聯網向全社會征集到意見建議超過101.8萬條,還面向地方部門、各領域專家、民主黨派、無黨派人士等有關主體召開數百場座談會、聽證會,收到數以千計的提案和建議,并據此對規劃綱要草案作出了55處修改。美國哈佛大學連續13年對中國的民意調查顯示,中國人民對中國政府和中國共產黨的滿意度長期保持在90%以上。這是對中式民主的最大肯定。

       

      2. Accommodating to people’s fundamental needs

      二、發展和完善民主制度,要適應人民的根本需求。

       

      In ancient Greece, people believed that “Democratia” was part of their “good living” (Eu zin). Democracy is closely related to people’s lives and is an important way to build a better life. The modernization of the democratic political system should go hand in hand with the development of the country to achieve the coordinated progress in material, political, cultural-ethical, social, and ecological development, and meet the needs of the people for a happy life in all aspects. In practising democracy in China, the CPC aims to create conditions for a happy life for the people under the Five-Sphere Integrated Plan for coordinated progress in the economic, political, cultural, social and ecological fields, which is the Chinese path to modernization. Such a path supports and promotes the development of democracy in China, effectively guarantees the people’s rights to survival and development and other democratic rights, and ultimately allows prosperity for all the people through the sharing of the benefits of modernization. This is in sharp contrast to the chaos in some countries where “the vast majority serves the minority” or where “the governments are of, by and for the one percent of the people”.

      在古希臘文明中,人們認為“民主”(Democratia)是“美好生活”(Eu zin)的一部分。民主政治制度與人民的生活息息相關,是創造美好生活的重要途徑。民主政治制度的現代化應與國家發展并行,實現物質文明、政治文明、精神文明、社會文明和生態文明的均衡發展,滿足人民對幸福生活的全方位需求。在中國的民主實踐中,中國共產黨在國家發展的“五位一體”總體布局下構建人民安居樂業的美好生活,通過將經濟建設、政治建設、文化建設、社會建設、生態建設等五大建設有機統一,全面構建五大文明,這就是中國式現代化的目標。這一目標支撐并促進中國民主發展,切實保障人民的生存權、發展權和各項民主權利,最終實現讓全體人民共同富裕并共享現代化成果。這不同于一些國家出現的“絕大多數人服務少數人”、“1%民有、1%民治、1%民享”的亂象。

       

      Economic development drives material progress. To ensure a good and happy life for the people, a country must first “make the cake bigger”, by driving productivity and technological development to create more material wealth and opportunities. Political development aims to promote and improve the political ecosystem, to ensure economic development and social stability, so that the people can become the masters of their own country, protected by the rule of law, which sets restraints on interest groups, power groups, elite politics and capital. Cultural development focuses on cultural and ethical progress, which enables a better and deeper understanding of democracy, opens people’s minds, sets ethical standards, tackles ignorance, and leads to spiritual satisfaction and a better life. Social development aims to promote social progress, focusing on improving living standards of all social sectors, building a harmonious society, preventing social conflicts, narrowing gaps between the rich and the poor, and eliminating the causes of chaos, disorder, discrimination and violence. Ecological development aims to promote ecological progress in order to achieve the harmonious coexistence of humans and nature, and effectively protect the environment which is to the benefit of everyone. If any democratic system runs against the above five principles, such a democratic model is at least crippled, and can never set an example for others.

      經濟建設是物質文明發展的基礎。人民想要享受美好的幸福生活,首先要“把蛋糕做大”,促進生產力和科技發展,創造更多的物質財富和發展機遇供人民享用。政治建設就是推進和完善政治文明,以保障經濟發展和社會穩定,通過全面依法治國,約束利益集團、權勢團體、精英政治和資本侵權僭法,真正保證全體人民當家作主。文化建設致力于發展精神文明,促進人民對民主有更好、更深入的理解,開啟民智、規范道德、防止愚昧,真正做到價值追求上的科學進步和精神富足。社會建設旨在推動社會文明建設,著力改善社會各階層民生,打造和諧社會,防止社會撕裂、貧富分化,破除混亂、無序、歧視和暴力滋生的土壤。生態建設旨在推動生態文明建設,實現人與自然的和諧共存、生態良好,切實保障人民賴以生存發展的美麗家園。如果民主制度與以上五大文明發展相悖,那么這種民主模式至少是殘缺的,更不能稱為典范。

       

      3. Accommodating to the basic national conditions

      三、發展和完善民主制度,要適應本國的基本國情。

       

      From the origin of democracy in ancient Greece to the Renaissance, and from the Enlightenment to the wave of modern democratization after World War II, history has repeatedly illustrated one truth: in designing, developing or improving the political system of a country, it is critical to base this on its specific national conditions, including cultural traditions, the stage of economic and social development, national mentality and values, in order to choose a democratic political path that suits it the best. In modern history, China experimented with bourgeois democracy, a constitutional monarchy or a bourgeois republic, but all these failed at protecting China from aggression by Western imperialist powers, or saved it from poverty and backwardness, which pushed China to the brink of national subjugation and extinction. At that critical moment, history and the people chose the CPC. Under the guidance of Marxism, the CPC carried out continuous exploration and practice of socialist democracy with Chinese characteristics, and established a political system in which the CPC is the ruling party with broad participation of democratic parties in the administration of state affairs, and the people being the masters of the country. In this way, it has promoted the development of democracy and the prosperity of the country. It can be said that when designing, developing and improving its own form of democracy, China always focused on absorbing the experience of western political systems under the guidance of the Marxist concept of democracy, adhered to its specific national conditions, and developed a democratic path that is based on the leadership of the CPC, the people as the masters of the country and the rule of law. Since the founding of the People’s Republic of China, especially since the reform and opening up, China’s overall national strength and people’s living standards have substantially improved, and the democratic rights of the people are fully protected by material, social and legal conditions. This fully proves the feasibility and superiority of such a path and institutional framework. The development of democracy in China has offered a “Chinese solution” for the global democratic political culture.

      從古希臘民主起源到文藝復興,從啟蒙運動到二戰后的現代民主化浪潮,歷史反復印證了一個道理:一個國家設計、發展和完善本國的政治制度,必須堅持從本國國情出發,包括傳統文化影響、經濟社會發展階段、國民心理價值追求等,要從這些實際出發,走適合本國國情的民主政治道路。近代以來的中國曾經嘗試過資產階級民主,曾探索建立君主立憲制和資產階級共和制,但都沒有能夠成功解救中國,當時的中國仍然遭受西方帝國主義列強的侵略,國家貧窮落后,人民生活困苦,面臨著亡國滅種的危險。危難關頭,歷史和人民選擇了中國共產黨,在馬克思主義指導下對中國特色社會主義民主進行了不懈探索和實踐,建立了中國共產黨執政、各民主黨派參政議政和人民當家作主的政治制度,促進了民主發展和國家富強??梢哉f,中國在設計、發展和完善自身民主時,一直注重吸取西方政治文明的經驗,并以馬克思主義民主觀為指導,堅持結合本國具體國情,走出了一條堅持中國共產黨領導、人民當家作主與依法治國相統一的民主發展道路。新中國成立特別是改革開放以來,中國綜合國力和人民生活水平大幅提升,人民的各項民主權利有了充分的物質的、社會的和法治條件的保障,充分證明了這條道路和這一制度架構的可行性和優越性。中國的民主發展,為全人類民主政治文明提供了“中國方案”。

       

      In today’s world, if democracy is truly deemed an axiom, a system of beliefs and values, it should be adapted to the development trends of the times to upholding real multilateralism and promoting the democratization of international relations. The biggest enemies of multilateralism and the democratization of international relations are hegemonism and unilateralism. The willful establishment of military alliances, withdrawal from international organizations and agreements, threatening others from a position of strength, use of group interests to force the subjugation of weaker countries, the export of ideology globally, as well as the imposing of sanctions against countries with different philosophies, run against the democratization of international relations, and is a true reflection of the perpetrators’ undemocratic system. China has always adhered to the democratization of international relations, firmly practised true multilateralism, effectively safeguarded the international system with the United Nations as its core and the international order based on international law, promoted the common values of humanity which are peace, development, fairness, justice, democracy, and freedom, and driven the building of a community with a shared future for mankind. China launched the Belt and Road Initiative and has so far signed cooperation agreements with 140 countries and 31 international organizations, which reflects the values of extensive consultation, joint contribution, and shared benefits, and conforms with the wishes of most countries in the world.

      當今世界,如真正把民主視為圭臬,視為信仰和價值觀,就應適應時代發展潮流,堅持真正的多邊主義,推動國際關系民主化。多邊主義和國際關系民主化最大的敵人就是霸權主義和單邊主義。動輒以建立軍事同盟、退出國際組織和國際條約和實力地位相威脅,以集團利益脅迫弱小的國家屈從自己的觀點,到處輸出意識形態,甚至一言不合就制裁不同理念的國家,這些行徑既與國際關系民主化背道而馳,也是其國內制度不民主的真實折射。中國始終堅持國際關系民主化,堅定踐行真正的多邊主義,切實維護以聯合國為核心的國際體系和以國際法為基礎的國際秩序,促進和平、發展、公平、正義、民主、自由的全人類共同價值的實現,推動構建人類命運共同體。中國倡導的“一帶一路”建設,同140個國家和32個國際組織簽署合作文件,體現了“共商共建共享”的原則,順應了世界上絕大多數國家的呼聲。

       

      President Xi Jinping once said, “Socialist democracy with Chinese characteristics is something new and good.” Regardless of the form of democracy, it should ultimately come down to the fundamental pursuit of a happy life for the people. With COVID-19 pandemic still raging on a global scale, the people’s lives and health are under great threat and many countries have encountered difficulties in governance and development. We should abandon ideological prejudice, communicate and learn from each other’s advantages and merits, and jointly pursue high-quality democracy that can bring tangible benefits to the people, promote the common values of humanity, and build a community with a shared future for mankind.

      習近平主席曾說,“中國特色社會主義民主是個新事物,也是個好事物?!睙o論民主有怎樣的實現形式,都應最終落到為人民謀求幸福生活的根本追求上來。如今新冠疫情仍然在全球范圍肆虐,廣大人民的生命健康正受到威脅,許多國家治理和發展出現了難處,我們更應摒棄意識形態偏見,互相交流借鑒各國制度的優勢和特長,共同追求能真正造福人民、弘揚全人類共同價值、構建人類命運共同體的高質量民主。

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