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      雙語:秦剛大使在尼克松訪華50周年紀念活動上的主旨演講
      發布時間:2022年03月16日     發布人: nanyuzi
      來源: 駐美國使館
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      秦剛大使在尼克松訪華50周年紀念活動上的主旨演講

      Keynote Speech by Ambassador Qin Gang at the Commemoration for the 50th Anniversary of President Richard Nixon’s Visit to China

       

      2022年2月24日

      24 February 2022

       

      尊敬的趙小蘭部長,

      芮效儉大使,

      考克斯先生,

      拜倫總裁,

      謝明先生,

      女士們、先生們、朋友們:

      The Honorable Secretary Elaine Chao,

      Ambassador James Stapleton Roy,

      Mr. Christopher Nixon Cox,

      Mr. Jim Byron,

      Mr. Ming Xie,

      Ladies and Gentlemen,

      Friends,

       

      很高興今晚來到尼克松總統的家鄉、在以他命名的圖書館與大家共同紀念50年前尼克松總統對中國進行的歷史性訪問和中美《上海公報》的發表。感謝尼克松基金會的邀請,也感謝所有參與籌辦此次活動的組織和個人。我要向為中美關系建立和發展做出過卓越貢獻的尼克松總統和兩國老一輩領導人表示崇高敬意,這包括毛澤東主席和周恩來總理,他們的塑像就陳列在這個圖書館里。我也要向基辛格博士、尼克松總統的家人及長期致力于支持、促進中美關系發展的中美各界人士表示衷心感謝。

      It is my great pleasure to join you here, at the library named after President Richard Nixon, in his hometown, to commemorate his historic visit to China and the issuance of Shanghai Communique 50 years ago. I wish to thank the Nixon Foundation for the invitation, and my thanks also go to the sponsors contributing to the wonderful evening. I wish to pay high tribute to President Nixon and the elder generation of Chinese and American leaders who made extraordinary contribution to the establishment and development of China-US relations. Among them were Chairman Mao Zedong and Premier Zhou Enlai, whose statues are in display right in this museum. I also extend sincere appreciation to Dr. Kissinger, the family of President Nixon and all those who have been supporting and promoting the growth of China-US relations.

       

      1972年2月21日至28日,歷史鐫刻這一周,是因為尼克松總統胸懷著“我們為和平而來”的宗旨,將中國之行視作人類登月一樣神圣和崇高;歷史鐫刻這一周,是因為在北京首都國際機場,周恩來總理同尼克松總統跨越“世界最遼闊海洋的握手”,打破了20多年隔絕對抗的堅冰;歷史鐫刻這一周,是因為中美發表了《上海公報》,開啟了兩國關系正?;M程;歷史鐫刻這一周,是因為訪問緩和了東西方關系,增強了維護世界和平的力量,改變了國際戰略格局?!澳且恢芨淖兞耸澜纭?。

      The week of February 21 to 28, 1972 would always be etched in the annals of history. With the idea that “we came in peace for all mankind”, President Nixon visited China, a trip he considered as sacred and lofty as the moon landing of mankind. The week would be remembered in history, as the handshake between Premier Zhou Enlai and President Nixon at Beijing Capital Airport came over the vastest ocean in the world, breaking the ice of more than 20 years of no communication. The week would be remembered for the issuance of Shanghai Communique, which started the normalization of China-US relations. The week would be remembered also because that visit stood for the easing of relations between the East and the West. The forces for peace were strengthened and the international strategic landscape was shifted. It was a week “that changed the whole world”.

       

      歷史是最好的老師,它忠實地記錄下中美關系走過的足跡,也為未來的發展提供了啟迪。尼克松總統50年前劃時代外交行動是其務實主義外交的巔峰之作,兩國領導人留下的寶貴遺產對當今仍具有重要的現實意義。

      History is our best guide. It faithfully records the past journey, and gives us inspiration for the future. President Nixon’s pragmatic diplomacy culminated in this monumental visit 50 years ago, and his legacy still serves as an important reference today.

       

      一是非凡的戰略遠見。毛澤東主席同尼克松總統會見時說,我們要討論“哲學問題”,言下之意就是中美要從戰略高度和長遠角度正確把握兩國關系。尼克松總統也有一個憧憬,那就是“建設一個新的更好的世界”。正是如此,兩國領導人洞悉國際風云變幻,超越意識形態分歧和社會制度差異,以國家利益為重,以人民福祉為先,結束了20多年的對立和敵意,打開了兩國關系的大門。

      First, extraordinary strategic vision. Chairman Mao said in his meeting with President Nixon, we should talk about “philosophical issues”. What he meant was that China and the US should take a strategic and long-term view of relations. President Nixon also envisaged building “a new and better world”. Therefore, the two leaders, with a masterly grasp of the shifting international landscape, put the interests of their nations and peoples before the differences in ideology and political system to end over two decades of antagonism and hostility, and opened the gate of China-US relations.

       

      二是巨大的政治勇氣。萬事開頭難,從新中國建立到上世紀70年代初,中美關系冰凍三尺,非一日之寒。毛澤東主席1970年10月1日在天安門城樓上會見美國友人斯諾夫婦,向美方傳遞了積極友好的信號。次年,毛澤東主席決定邀請美國乒乓球隊訪華,用“小球推動大球”。尼克松總統心領神會,頂住各方壓力,克服重重阻力,先是采取一系列“外交小步舞”,后又安排基辛格博士秘密訪華,最后他果敢地踏上中華人民共和國的土地,當之無愧地成為中美關系的“破冰者”。

      Second, huge political courage. All things are difficult before they are easy. Estrangement persisted between China and the US from 1949 when the People’s Republic of China was founded to the early 1970s, and took some hard efforts to break. Chairman Mao met with Edgar Snow and his wife on the Tian’anmen Rostrum on October 1, 1970, sending a positive and friendly message to the US side. In 1971, he decided to invite the US table tennis team to visit China to “move the big ball with the small ball”. President Nixon picked up on this gesture. Despite all the pressure and obstacles, he first staged some diplomatic minuets, asked Dr. Kissinger to make a secret visit to China, and then paid a decisive visit to the People’s Republic of China himself, becoming a well-deserved “icebreaker” in China-US relations.

       

      三是高超的外交智慧。周恩來總理說,“中美兩國政府之間存在巨大的分歧,但是這種分歧不應當妨礙中美兩國在和平共處五項原則的基礎上建立正常的國家關系?!蹦峥怂煽偨y說,“我們必須承認美中現在和今后存在巨大分歧,但讓美中走到一起的是超越分歧的共同利益?!彼脑L問正是中美相互尊重、求同存異的外交經典。

      Third, exceptional diplomatic wisdom. Premier Zhou Enlai said, “The social systems of China and the United States are fundamentally different, and there exist great differences between the Chinese Government and the United States Government. However, these differences should not hinder China and the United States from establishing normal state relations on the basis of the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence.” President Nixon said, “We must recognize that the Government of the People’s Republic of China and the Government of the United States have had great differences.” “What brings us together is that we have common interests which transcend those differences.” His visit is just a classical example of diplomacy featuring respecting each other, seeking common ground and reserving differences between our two countries.

       

      在臺灣這一關鍵問題上,中美經過長時間艱苦磋商,以妥善方式予以處理,其核心是一個中國原則。應當說,這是當時條件下雙方能夠達成的最大公約數。沒有一個中國原則,就沒有隨后構成中美關系政治基礎的三個聯合公報,就沒有中美關系正?;M程。

      On Taiwan, China and the US properly handled the key question after lengthy and difficult consultations, and at the center is the one-China principle. It was the biggest consensus that the two sides could reach at that time. Without the one-China principle, there would have been no joint communiques that form the political foundation of China-US relations, and there would have been no normalization of the relations.

       

      女士們、先生們,

      Ladies and Gentlemen,

       

      50年彈指一揮間,今天,世界已今非昔比。冷戰已經結束30多年了,全球化改變了世界經濟版圖,互聯網等新科技使我們的星球成為了互聯互通的“地球村”,新冠肺炎疫情又讓我們認識到國際社會命運攸關、休戚與共。

      Fifty years is only a flash in the long history of the world. But so much has changed. The Cold War has been past us for over 30 years. Globalization has transformed the world economic landscape. The Internet and other new technologies have made our planet a global village. At the same time, COVID-19 has made us clearly aware that people in this world share weal and woe together.

       

      今天,中美關系也已滄海桑田。中美建交已有43年,兩國事實上成為密不可分的經濟利益共同體,雙方人員之間的交往水乳相融,中美也是國際體系中重要的利益攸關方,中美關系早已“大到不能倒”。同時,冷戰思維仍在作祟,冰層又在中美間凝結,帶來絲絲寒意。

      The China-US relationship has also undergone tremendous changes. Over the past 43 years of diplomatic relations, China and the US have grown into a close-knit community with inseparable economic interests, our people have developed unbreakable ties, and we are both important stakeholders in international system. China-US relations have become just “too big to fail”. At the same time, the Cold-War mentality is still doing harm. Ice is forming again, and sending chills.

       

      中美關系又來到新的歷史關口,處在新一輪相互發現、認知和調適中,尋求新時代相處之道。習近平主席指出,中美能否處理好彼此關系,攸關世界前途命運,是兩國必須答好的世紀之問。

      With all this, the China-US relationship has come to another historical juncture. We are entering a new round of mutual exploration, understanding and adaptation, trying to find a way to get along with each other in the new era. President Xi Jinping pointed out that whether China and the US can handle their relations well bears on the future of the world. It is a question of the century to which the two countries must provide a good answer.?

       

      我就是在這樣一個充滿了挑戰的時刻來到美國。據說,尼克松總統訪華前做足了“功課”,那就是在家中練習使用筷子,相比之下,我的準備工作挑戰可能更大些,行前我到北京環球影城親身體驗了一把“過山車”。我還去了《上海公報》的誕生地——上海錦江賓館,從那里,開啟了我的美國之旅。

      I came to the US at this challenging time. It is said that President Nixon practiced using chopsticks as preparations for his visit to China. Compared with him, I had to prepare more. I took a rollercoaster ride at Universal Studios Beijing. I also visited Jinjiang Hotel in Shanghai, the birthplace of Shanghai Communique, and then set off to the US.

       

      來這里前,我專程去紐約拜訪了基辛格博士,聆聽這位尼克松訪華親歷者談那段歷史給今天人們的啟示。他說,尼克松總統擁有一種特質,總是對局勢有著很強的理解和判斷力,擅長從歷史的縱深制定對外政策。尼克松同中國領導人的對話主要聚焦宏觀世界秩序,而非具體問題,從而避免了讓眼前的分歧阻礙兩國關系總體改善。我凝視著這位還不到百歲的“年輕人”,默默地問自己,我們這一代人該如何繼承毛澤東、周恩來和尼克松、基辛格的外交遺產?如果說,50年前,中美走近是因為雙方都有應對共同威脅的戰略需要,共同利益讓中美超越了分歧,那么,50年后,中美關系的基礎還存在嗎?中美共同利益在哪里?共同面臨的“敵人”又是誰?

      Before I came to California, I visited Dr. Kissinger in New York to listen to his ideas about what people can learn from President Nixon’s visit. He said, President Nixon had a strong understanding and keen judgment on the situation. He also told me President Nixon was good at taking a historical perspective into foreign policy making. His dialogue with Chinese leaders focused on the world order, instead of specific issues, so that those differences would not stand in the way of our relations. Looking at him, a young man who is younger than 100 years old, I asked myself, how can our generation carry on the diplomatic legacy of Chairman Mao, Premier Zhou, President Nixon and Dr. Kissinger? If the rapprochement 50 years ago was because we shared the strategic need to counter our common threat, and our common interests outweighed our differences, then 50 years later, do we still have that basis to develop our relations? What are our common interests? And who is our “common enemy”?

       

      我的回答是,中美間的共同利益從未有像今天這樣廣泛,它們是超過7500億美元的年貿易額及支撐的各自數百萬人口的就業,是7萬多家在華投資的美國企業,是??吭诼迳即壐劭谝凰宜彝鶃碛谥忻篱g的貨船,是30多萬在美留學的中國學生,是疫情前每年500多萬往來兩國之間的民眾,是兩國之間建立起的280多對友好省州和城市。這個單子可以很長。他們是把我們聯在一起無法割舍的紐帶。今天我們共同的“敵人”是事關兩國及人類生存與發展的重大挑戰,他們是氣候變化、能源安全、糧食安全、全球發展鴻溝、大流行病、核擴散、網絡攻擊、新興技術失控、地區熱點等等。中美作為兩個大國,對此責無旁貸,要攜手抗敵?!靶吕鋺稹辈粦蔀檫@個時代的背景色,競爭、對抗不應成為中美關系的主基調。

      My answer is, our common interests have never been as extensive as today. They are the over 750 billion dollars of annual trade and millions of jobs in both countries supported by such trade. They are the over 70,000 American companies investing in China, an array of container ships moored in Los Angeles ports that go between China and the US, the 300,000 Chinese students studying in America, and our citizens who made five million mutual visits every year before COVID-19. They are the more than 280 pairs of sister provinces, states and cities between us. The list can go on and on, and they are the bonds that keep us together. Our common “enemy” should be the major challenges concerning the survival and development of both countries and mankind, such as climate change, energy security, food security, global development gap, pandemics, nuclear proliferation, cyberattacks, emerging technologies getting out of control, regional hotspots. The new “Cold War” should not be used to define the time we live in. Competition and confrontation should not be the keynote of China-US relations.

       

      中美之間有競爭不可避免,問題是怎么競爭?我祝賀洛杉磯公羊隊獲得今年“超級碗”冠軍,但中美關系顯然不同于激烈對抗的美式橄欖球比賽,這里不應有攻方、守方,不應有“達陣”得分、“四分衛擒殺”。另一幅場景是剛剛落幕的北京冬奧會上,中美兩國運動員同場競技,他們相互勉勵、奮勇爭先、超越自我。惜敗的中國運動員向美國選手贈送紀念品,失利的美國運動員擁抱奪金的中國選手并呼喊“我為你驕傲”。此情此景,大家一定和我一樣說,這里沒有輸家,只有雙贏。正如美方在《上海公報》中所說的:“各國應該相互尊重并愿進行和平競賽,讓行動作出最后判斷?!蹦峥怂煽偨y評價“乒乓外交”說,“乒乓比賽會有輸贏,但最大贏家是兩國人民的友誼?!?span>

      There is no denying that China and the US do compete. But how should the competition play out? I congratulate Los Angeles Rams for winning the Super Bowl this year. But China-US relations should not be like the intensely confrontational American football match. There should be no offensive team or defensive team, no touchdown, no quarterback sack. At the just concluded Beijing Winter Olympics, when Chinese and American athletes competed, they just both gave out their best performances, and at the same time supported each other, cheered for each other. A pair of Chinese curling players who lost to their American competitors presented them with gifts, and an American skier congratulated her Chinese counterpart who won gold with a warm hug and told her “I’m so proud of you”. Watching their interactions, I think you will agree that there is no loser here, all are winners. Just as the US side stated in the Shanghai Communique, “Countries should treat each other with mutual respect and be willing to compete peacefully, letting performance be the ultimate judge.” President Nixon also said when referring to Ping-Pong diplomacy, despite there being winners and losers in the table tennis tournament, the real winner “will be the friendship between the people of the United States and the people of the People’s Republic of China.”

       

      尼克松總統當年在游覽長城時有感而發:“希望那些豎起的墻,不管是像這樣的實體墻,還是其他意識形態的墻,都不會將世界上的人們分開,不管他們的背景和觀點有什么不同,我們將有機會互相交流,互相了解,互相分享”。中美作為世界前兩大經濟體和聯合國安理會兩個常任理事國,如果彼此對立、敵視、隔閡,不僅做不到,而且兩國及世界都難以承受其害。

      When visiting the Great Wall, President Nixon said, “we hope maybe that the walls that are erected, whether they are physical walls like this, or whether they are other walls of ideology or philosophy, will not divide peoples in the world, that regardless of people’s differences in backgrounds and their philosophy, we’ll have an opportunity to communicate with each other, to know each other and to share with each other.” As the world’s two largest economies and permanent members of the UN Security Council, it’s simply impossible for China and the US to stay in confrontation, hostility or estrangement, and any of these will cause unbearable damage to both countries and the world.

       

      競爭需要規則?!渡虾9珗蟆返戎忻廊齻€聯合公報是雙方必須共同遵守的規則。一個中國原則是中美關系不可撼動的政治基礎,也是不可逾越的紅線。實現祖國的完全統一是全體中華兒女的共同心愿和堅強意志,這是中華民族歷史演進大勢所決定的,誰都不能違背。我們愿以最大誠意、盡最大努力爭取實現和平統一?!芭_獨”分裂勢力是祖國統一的最大障礙,如任其繼續沿著危險的道路走下去,必將不斷推高緊張風險。為維護和平穩定,美方應信守在臺灣問題上的鄭重承諾,與中方一道反對和遏制“臺獨”。

      There must be rules for competition. Shanghai Communique and the other two Sino-US Joint Communiques are the rules that both sides must follow. The one-China principle is the unshakable political foundation for China-US relations, and a red line that must not be crossed. To realize China’s complete reunification is a common aspiration and strong will of the entire Chinese people. This is determined by the trajectory of the Chinese nation, and no one can go against it. We are ready to realize peaceful reunification with utmost sincerity and efforts. “Taiwan independence” separatist forces are the biggest obstacle to China’s reunification. If they are allowed to go down the dangerous path, risks for tension will be heightened. To maintain peace and stability, the US side should honor its commitments on the Taiwan question, and work with China to oppose and contain ‘Taiwan independence’ separatist forces.

       

      中美作為歷史文化、社會制度和發展階段不同的兩個國家,有分歧是正常的。但正如尼克松總統所說,“我們必須保留既有的差異,又不成為敵對國?!睖贤▽υ捠墙鉀Q分歧的明智選擇,是建立互信的正確途徑,是減少誤判的有效方式。同時,雙方也要以理性和建設性的方式管控分歧,不能人為制造矛盾、擴大分歧,更不能讓矛盾和分歧導致中美關系失控、脫軌。

      As two countries with different history, culture, social system and development stage, it is normal for China and the US to differ. But just as President Nixon said, “What we must do is to find a way to see that we can have differences without being enemies in war”. Communication and dialogue is a wise choice to resolve differences, a correct way to establish mutual trust and an effective means to reduce misjudgment. At the same time, our two sides should manage differences in a rational and constructive way, and not create problems or enlarge differences, still less should we let China-US relations get out of control or off track.

       

      女士們、先生們,

      Ladies and Gentlemen,

       

      習近平主席指出,中美要相互尊重、和平共處、合作共贏,這就是洞穿歷史、觀照現實的行動指南。讓我們共同努力,推動中美關系早日回到正軌,繼續造福兩國人民,順應國際社會的普遍期待。

      President Xi Jinping pointed out that China and the US must respect each other, coexist peacefully and pursue win-win cooperation. This is a guideline developed with historical wisdom and directing the future path. Let’s work together to take the China-US relationship back to the right track as soon as possible, so as to deliver greater benefits to the people of our two countries and meet the expectations of the world.

       

      女士們、先生們,

      Ladies and Gentlemen,

       

      50年前,尼克松總統啟程訪華時,在白宮南草坪上面對歡送的人群說道,希望通過這次訪問讓世界更加安全,特別是讓在場的孩子們在和平的世界里長大。鏡頭里那些美國孩子們只有5、6歲,那時我和他們一樣大。在我年少時,經常聽一首歌叫《紅杉樹》,它歌頌尼克松總統訪華時帶去的象征中美人民友誼的紅杉樹樹苗在中華大地上生根發芽、枝茂葉盛。我也幸運地在過去半個世紀中國改革開放、中美交往合作中成長,并且有幸出任第11任中國駐美大使。我很想知道歷史鏡頭里的那些男孩、女孩今天是否安好?我真希望有機會見到他們和他們的孩子,共話中美關系這50年及對每個人的影響,共同憧憬中美關系對我們子孫的意義。

      Fifty years ago, when President Nixon departed for his visit to China, he said to people who saw him off on the White House South Lawn, “If we can make progress toward that goal on this trip, the world will be a much safer world and the chance particularly for all of those 100 children over there to grow up in a world of peace will be infinitely greater.” The American boys and girls present on the South Lawn were only five or six years old, just as I was back then. There was a song popular in my childhood years called Sequoia. It extols the growth of Californian redwood, which was gifts of President Nixon to China and symbol of China-US friendship, from saplings to towering trees. I’m lucky to live through China’s reform and opening-up and the development of China-US ties in the following five decades, and to serve as the 11th Chinese Ambassador to the US now. I’m wondering about those boys and girls from 50 years ago, how are they today? I do hope to have a chance to meet them and their children, share with each other our perspectives of the 50 years of China-US relationship and its impact on each of us and look to its significance for the younger generation.

       

      最后,我提議,

      為尼克松訪華和《上海公報》發表50周年,

      為基辛格博士及在座各位的健康,

      為中美兩國子孫后代共享和平與繁榮,

      干杯!

      Last but not least, let me propose a toast,

      To the 50th anniversary of President Nixon’s visit to China and the issuance of Shanghai Communique,

      To the health of Dr. Kissinger and all of you present,

      And to the lasting peace and prosperity of our future generations,

      Cheers!

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