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      雙語:從過去到現在:請摘掉濾鏡看中國
      發布時間:2022年04月07日     發布人: nanyuzi
      來源: 駐挪威使館
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      From Past to Present: To Observe China Without Filter

      從過去到現在:請摘掉濾鏡看中國

       

      駐挪威大使易先良在《晚郵報》發表署名文章

      Ambassador Yi Xianliang Published an Article on Aftenposten

       

      2022年1月1日

      1 January 2022

       

      China has become a hot topic. In the past 30 days, there has been nearly 30 articles about China on Aftenposten alone. As the Chinese ambassador, I appreciate the attention to my country. However, I find it difficult to agree with some of the views in the articles. How should we observe China? What kind of civilization has persisted in the 5000 years’ history of China? What diversities does the land of 9.6 million square kilometers feature? What kind of values do the 1.4 billion people believe in? These elements are complicated issues. But it might be wise observe China from 4 perspectives:

      關于中國的話題越來越受到關注。過去一個月中,僅《晚郵報》上發表專門關于中國的報道就有近30篇。作為中國大使,感謝大家對我的國家的關注。但是這些報道中的一些觀點我不能認同。究竟該如何看中國?5000年歷史中,什么樣的文明綿亙于這個國家?960萬平方公里國土,體現了什么樣的多樣性?什么樣的價值取向最能代表14億人民的訴求?這些問題不易解答,但至少可從四個角度看中國:

       

      The historical perspective: During the Warring States period over 2000 years ago, China was a war zone where there was not so much of a livelihood for the people. During the Ming Dynasty 600 years ago, China became one of the most prosperous nation after having stabilized its borders. Zheng He, leading his gigantic fleet, made 7 overseas visits, reaching as far as eastern Africa, without claiming an inch of territory. Nor did he initiate any war or conflict against others. In the Qing Dynasty which collapsed 110 years ago, China was struggling deep in the chaos created by foreign warships and forced opium trade. The average life expectancy was less than 34 years. In the next century, tens of millions of people died in the melee during the Warlord Era, the War of Resistance against Japanese Aggression and the Civil War. It was not until the establishment of the People’s Republic of China in 1949 that the nation was back on track. In the early 1950s, China’s population was 570 million while its GDP was 68 billion USD. The country was in ruin and couldn’t even produce basic goods such as thumbtacks. Now in 2020, China enjoys an average life expectancy of 77 years and its GDP is at 14.7 trillion USD. It is the largest trading partner of more than 120 countries and regions, and contributed more than 30% of the world’s economic growth. China has experienced both ups and downs in its 5000 years of history, and the lesson are clear. Only by continuous self-improvement can we realize peace. Only with peace can we prosper. Therefore, the Chinese people treasure peaceful coexistence.

      從歷史角度看。距今2000多年前的春秋戰國時期中華大地一片混戰,民不聊生。距今600年的明帝國,中國在穩固邊疆后實現繁榮,鄭和率領龐大船隊七次出訪,最遠抵非洲東部,沒有占領他國一寸領土,也沒有發動任何戰爭。距今110年前消亡的清朝,中國國門被列強打開,堅船利炮和鴉片貿易幾乎摧毀了這個國家,人均壽命不足34歲。此后一個世紀,數千萬人死于軍閥混戰、抗日戰爭和內戰。直到1949年人民共和國建立,中國才重回正軌。上世紀50年代,中國人口5.7億,國內生產總值(GDP)680億美元,連圖釘都需要進口。2020年,中國人均壽命77歲,GDP14.7萬億美元,成為120多個國家和地區的主要貿易伙伴,對世界經濟增長貢獻率超30%。如果歷史教會中國人什么經驗,那首先是自強不息與和平共處。5000年強弱更替,冷暖自知。只有自強不息,才能贏得和平,只有和平,才能繁榮富強。因此,中國人十分珍視和平共處。

       

      The realistic perspective: With a vast territory and great diversity, China’s development could not be realized simultaneously. There are metropolises such as Beijing, Shanghai and Hong Kong, but also many underdeveloped regions. Although almost 800 million people have been lifted out of absolute poverty over the past 4 decades, China’s GDP per capita is still less than 1/7 of that in Norway. 600 million Chinese have a monthly income less than 1400 Norwegian Krones. China is and will remain a developing country for a long time. As a result, the primary task of the Chinese government is to meet the needs of its own people, maintain social fairness and justice, and to solve the problem of unbalanced and insufficient development. For instance, if 1.4 billion Chinese eat one egg per day, 500 billion eggs are needed for a year. And the problems China faces are more complicated than just providing eggs. Therefore, development is the first priority of China. We have no interest or extra resources to seek hegemony.

      從現實的角度看。中國的遼闊和多樣性注定中國發展不是整齊劃一的,有北京、上海、香港,但也有許多不發達地區。盡管讓8億人脫離了絕對貧困,但中國人均GDP不足挪威1/7,有6億中國人月均收入僅1400克朗,中國將長期是一個發展中國家。這決定了中國政府的首要任務是滿足本國人民的需求,維護社會公平正義,解決發展不平衡不充分問題。比如,14億中國人每人每天吃一個雞蛋,一年就要5000億只雞蛋。而中國要解決的問題遠不只雞蛋。因此,唯有發展才是我們解決問題的根本,我們毫無興趣也無多余的資源與別人去爭奪損人不利己的霸權。

       

      The future-oriented perspective: The driving force within China originates from the belief of a better world. As a responsible country, China wants to contribute more to the outside world. The surviving logic of Chinese is that one can only achieve better well-being when others are well and happy. Since the outbreak of the pandemic, we have produced 350 billion face masks, supplied the world with 2 billion vaccine doses and are among the first countries to support the sharing of vaccine patents. Nuclear weapon is a heated topic in Norway. China is the only one among countries with nuclear weapons that commits itself to the no-first-use policy, and will not use nuclear weapons against non-nuclear-weapon states or nuclear-weapon-free zones. China remains an open economy no matter how international conditions may change. The China International Import Expo has been held in four consecutive years, and China remains the world’s largest trading nation in goods. In 2019, 145 million tourists came to the Chinese mainland, while 155 million Chinese traveled around the world. China longs for a world of true multilateralism, with peace, development, fairness, justice, democracy and freedom as the common values of mankind. China’s development is not the result of colonization or invasion, but an outcome of hard work. China looks forward to a community with a shared future for mankind where no countries shall live at the mercy of other countries. Instead, all people have full right to achieve common prosperity through cooperation.

      從未來的角度看。中國前進的動力,是源自堅信未來更美好。中國期待什么樣的未來?中國希望成為能為世界做更多貢獻的負責任的國家。別人好自己才能更好,這是中國人的生存邏輯。疫情以來,我們向世界提供了20億劑疫苗,率先支持疫苗專利開放,為全球生產3500億個口罩。我們希望用對話解決問題。比如近來,挪威人民非常關注核武器問題,有核國家中只有中國承諾永不首先使用核武器、不對無核國家和地區使用核武器。中國是一個開放的國家,無論國際風云如何變幻,中國將始終堅持對外開放。中國已連續舉辦四屆進博會,是第一大貨物貿易國,2019年接納超過1.45億境外游客,也有1.55億中國人出境游覽。中國期待一個真正多邊主義的世界,堅持和平、發展、公平、正義、民主、自由的全人類共同價值。中國的發展不靠殖民,不靠侵略,靠的是埋頭苦干。如果中國對未來有什么期許,那就是人類命運共同體,各國人民都不仰人鼻息,不看人臉色,不被欺侮。人類懷抱美好希望,在相互包容中實現共同進步。

       

      The political perspective: China has always been seeking a development system that suits its reality. Since the fall of the Qing Dynasty in 1911, numerous experiments on political systems were conducted, among which both constitutional monarchy and parliamentarism failed. It is through continuous exploration and practice that the current political, economic and social systems were established. The political system in Norway differs from that in the U.S. or the U.K. It was chosen by the Norwegian people according to the Norwegian conditions. For over 70 years, the Chinese, led by the Communist Party of China, have promoted democracy in their own unique way. The feeling of happiness and participation in public governance among all Chinese people have increased, the supervision of the government has become more effective, and the whole society has become more inclusive and vibrant. China is committed to developing whole-process people’s democracy, which is reflected in the satisfaction of ordinary people. Travel around China, and you will have a deeper understanding of the real life, including political life, of Chinese people. If there should be a universal principle in China, then it must be to seek truth from facts. And that is precisely the recipe for China’s progress. To distort the truth or mislead on purpose will pay a heavy price. There have been many hard-learned lessons for China and other countries throughout history.

       

      從政治的角度看。中國人民一直在尋求符合實際的道路。1911年清朝覆滅,中國不斷進行政治制度嘗試,君主立憲制失敗了,議會制失敗了。中國現行政治、經濟和社會制度是在不斷探索和實踐中確立的。挪威政治制度同美國不同,同英國也不同,這并不是誰強加給挪威的,而是因為這是挪威人民選擇的符合挪實際情況的制度。過去70多年,在中國共產黨領導下,中國人民用自己的方式推進民主,人民幸福感和對政府治理參與度均不斷提高,對政府監督更加有效,中國社會包容性更強、更有活力。中國致力于發展全過程民主。中國是否民主,應該問老百姓對政府的滿意度。中國人民過得怎么樣,去中國走走、看看便明白。如果在中國有什么放之四海皆準的判斷,那一定是實事求是,直面問題,客觀看待,這是中國進步的關鍵。指鹿為馬,顛倒黑白,終將付出慘重代價,中國和其他國家都有過這方面的教訓。

       

      The image of China in your eyes depends on your intention and will of observation. However, China should by no means be observed in one color or from one angle, just as no one visits the Munch Museum with sunglasses on. A diverse China deserves nuanced insight without filters, and the Winter Olympics in Beijing offers just such an opportunity. I’m convinced that if you could put away the prejudice, China might bring you a pleasant surprise. It is my sincere hope that you could understand China from an objective and friendly point of view.

      如何評價中國,取決于觀察者的內心和動機。但無論如何,看中國不應只有一個角度,一種色調,就像不會有人戴墨鏡去蒙克博物館賞畫一樣。一個多樣的中國值得你摘下濾鏡,進一步洞察,北京冬奧會就是一次難得的機遇。相信當你放下偏見,就會收獲驚喜。期待你出于客觀與善意認識中國。

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