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      雙語:數說2021年中國宏觀經濟
      發布時間:2022年06月07日     發布人: nanyuzi
      來源: 駐伊朗使館
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      China’s Macro-Economy in 2021 Shown in Figures

      數說2021年中國宏觀經濟

       

      Chinese Ambassador to Iran Chang Hua

      駐伊朗大使常華

       

      2022年1月31日

      31 January 2022

       

      In 2021, faced with complex domestic and international landscapes and various risks and challenges, China sustained a continuous and steady growth of the national economy, maintained a leading position in economic development and epidemic prevention and control in the world, with major indicators reaching expected targets, new strides made in building a new development pattern, and new achievements secured in high-quality development. The achievements were mainly on the six following aspects.

      2021年,面對紛繁復雜的國內國際形勢和各種風險挑戰,中國經濟發展和疫情防控雙雙保持全球領先地位,國民經濟總體運行在合理區間,全年發展的主要目標任務已經完成,構建新發展格局邁出新步伐,高質量發展取得新成效。主要呈現以下亮點:

       

      First, China’s economic growth has been in the lead worldwide, with notably increased economic strength. China’s economic growth rate ranked among the top in major economies worldwide, with the GDP of 2021 growing by 8.1% year-on-year. Its GDP reached 114.4 trillion yuan, which equals US$17.7 trillion at the yearly average exchange rate, ranked second globally and was estimated to account for more than 18% of the global economy. The per capita GDP was 80, 976 yuan, amounting to US$12, 551 at the yearly average exchange rate. At the end of 2021, China’s foreign exchange reserves stood at more than US$3.2 trillion, the largest in the world.

      第一,經濟增長國際領先,經濟實力顯著增強。2021年,中國國內生產總值比上年增長8.1%,經濟增速在全球主要經濟體中名列前茅;經濟總量達114.4萬億元人民幣,突破110萬億元人民幣,按年平均匯率折算,達17.7萬億美元,占全球經濟的比重預計超過18%,穩居世界第二。人均國內生產總值80976元人民幣,按年平均匯率折算,達12551美元。外匯儲備余額連續8個月保持在3.2萬億美元以上,年末外匯儲備余額3.25萬億美元,穩居世界第一。

       

      Second, the national economy has continued to recover, meeting all major projected goals. In 2021, the GDP growth rate was higher than the projected target of 6%, which demonstrated stable economic performance. Employment was stable too. In 2021, 12.69 million new jobs in urban areas were created, meeting the expected target of more than 11 million. The surveyed urban unemployment rate was 5.1%, lower than the target of around 5.5%. The consumption price rose mildly. The CPI in 2021 increased by 0.9% year-on-year, lower than the target of around 3%. The growth of resident income was basically in line with the economic expansion. The per capita disposable income of Chinese citizens rose 8.1% from the previous year, meeting the target of scoring a steady increase in personal income. The grain output reached a record high. Last year’s total grain output was 680 million tons, remaining above 650 million tons for seven consecutive years.

      第二,國民經濟持續恢復,主要預期目標全面實現。2021年,經濟增速為8.1%,高于6%以上的預期目標,反映出經濟運行總體平穩。就業總體穩定,2021年城鎮新增就業1269萬人,達到1100萬人以上的預期目標;全國城鎮調查失業率平均為5.1%,低于5.5%左右的預期目標。消費價格溫和上漲,2021年居民消費價格比上年上漲0.9%,低于3%左右的預期目標。居民收入增長與經濟增長基本同步,2021年全國居民人均可支配收入比上年實際增長8.1%,達到居民收入穩步增長的要求。糧食產量再創新高,2021年糧食總產量6.8億噸,連續7年保持在1.3萬億斤以上。

       

      Third, the innovation momentum has been intensified with the rapid growth of the industrial manufacturing industry. In 2021, the national spending on R&D increased by 14.2%, 4 percentage points higher than the growth rate last year. The spending on R&D accounted for 2.44% of the GDP, 0.03 percentage points up than last year. The total value-added by industrial enterprises rose by 9.6%, 1.5 percentage points higher than the growth rate of GDP.

      第三,創新動能有效增強,工業制造業較快增長。2021年,全社會研究與試驗發展經費支出比上年增長14.2%,增速比上年加快4個百分點;研發經費支出與GDP之比達到2.44%,比上年提高0.03個百分點。2021年,全部工業增加值比上年增長9.6%,高于GDP增長1.5個百分點。

       

      Fourth, foreign trade and investment have grown rapidly, and opening up has been continuously expanded. In 2021, China’s total goods imports and exports expanded 21.4% year-on-year to 39.1 trillion yuan. The surplus of the imports and exports of goods expanded 20.4% year-on-year and total export volume and international market share reached a record high, achieving steady increases in both the volume and quality of imports and exports. The imports and exports of general trade made up 61.6% of the total trade volume, up by 1.6 percentage points year-on-year. Trade in services has continued to recover. From January to November 2021, the total trade in services increased by 14.7% year-on-year, with services exports up by 31.5%. The investment attracted set a new record. The actual utilized foreign capital in 2021 was 1.15 trillion yuan, up by 14.9%.

      第四,外貿外資快速增長,對外開放不斷擴大。2021年貨物進出口總額為39.1萬億人民幣,比上一年增長21.4%,順差比上年擴大20.4%,出口規模和國際市場份額創新高,達到進出口量穩質升的要求。一般貿易進出口額占進出口總額比重達61.6%,比上年提高1.6個百分點。服務貿易繼續恢復,2021年1-11月份,服務進出口總額同比增長14.7%,其中服務出口增長31.5%。引資規模再創新高,2021年實際使用外資1.15萬億元人民幣,同比增長14.9%。

       

      Fifth, the reform on the economic system has continued to deepen, further unleashing development vitality. At the end of 2021, the total number of market entities in China exceeded 150 million. Among the industries above designated size in 2021, value-added by enterprises with state-held controlling stakes, corporate enterprises, private enterprises, and foreign, Hong Kong, Macao, and Taiwan invested enterprises increased by 8.0%, 9.8%, 10.2%, and 8.9% respectively. Rapid growth has been made in new industries, new business forms, and new models. In 2021, the value-added by high-tech manufacturing enterprises above designated size increased by 18.2% year-on-year, 8.6 percentage points higher than that of the industries above designated size. The online retail sales of physical goods increased by 12%, accounting for 24.5% of the total retail sales of consumer goods.

      第五,經濟體制改革繼續深化,發展活力進一步激發。2021年末,中國市場主體總量超過1.5億戶,規模以上工業中,國有控股企業、股份制企業、私營企業、外商及港澳臺商投資企業增加值分別比上年增長8.0%、9.8%、10.2%、8.9%。新產業新業態新模式快速增長,2021年規模以上高技術制造業增加值比上年增長18.2%,快于規模以上工業8.6個百分點;實物商品網上零售額增長12.0%,占社會消費品零售總額的比重達24.5%。

       

      Sixth, efforts to ensure people’s livelihoods have been firm and effective, increasing people’s sense of fulfillment. In 2021, Chinese citizens’ net income from wages and salaries, net business income, and net property income grew by 9.6%, 11.0%, and 10.2%, respectively. As a result, the urban-rural income gap has been narrowed. The production and sales of basic consumption goods in 2021 have seen steady growth. The value-added by the consumer goods manufacturing industry above designated size increased by 9.8% year-on-year. The investment to improve living standards has expanded. The investment in social sectors increased by 10.7% year-on-year. Specifically, education and public health investment grew by 11.7% and 24.5% respectively.

      第六,民生保障有力有效,人民群眾獲得感增強。居民收入較快增長。2021年,全國居民人均工資性收入、經營凈收入、財產凈收入分別比上年名義增長9.6%、11.0%、10.2%。城鄉居民收入差距縮小?;鞠M品產銷穩定增長,2021年規模以上消費品制造業增加值比上年增長9.8%。民生投入繼續加大,2021年社會領域投資比上年增長10.7%,其中教育、衛生投資分別增長11.7%、24.5%。

       

      The world has seen an unusual year of 2021, and also witnessed the miracle of China’s economic growth in 2021. Chinese economy has been serving as the bedrock and stabilizer of world economic recovery and stability. China has also become the mainstays for the global fight against the epidemic and the promotion of multi-polar development. In the upcoming year of 2022, the stable growth momentum of Chinese economy will remain unchanged and the level of opening up will be higher.

      全世界走過了極不平凡的2021年,也見證了中國經濟增長的奇跡。中國經濟已經成為支撐世界經濟復蘇與穩定的壓艙石和推進器,中國也成為全球抗擊疫情和推動多極化發展的中堅力量。展望2022年,中國經濟穩步前行趨勢不會改變,對外開放的力度將進一步增強。

       

      Not long ago, during his visit to China, Iranian Foreign Minister His Excellency Mr. Hossein Amir-Abdollahian and Chinese State Councilor and Foreign Minister Wang Yi jointly announced the launch of the implementation of the Comprehensive Cooperation Plan. In the future, the practical cooperation between the two countries in various fields will be further expanded and the level of cooperation will be further lifted. China is ready to work with Iran to advance high-quality “Belt and Road” cooperation, strive for more early harvests, and to better benefit our two peoples.

      不久前,伊朗外長阿卜杜拉希揚訪華期間,與中國國務委員兼外長王毅共同宣布啟動兩國全面合作計劃落實工作。未來兩國各領域務實合作必將進一步拓展,合作水平必將進一步提升。中國愿與伊朗一道,共同推進高質量“一帶一路”建設,爭取取得更多早期收獲,更好地造福兩國人民。

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