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      雙語:消除貧困——中國的實踐與啟示
      發布時間:2022年07月06日     發布人: nanyuzi
      來源: 駐南蘇丹使館
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      China’s Practices and Implications

      消除貧困——中國的實踐與啟示

       

      Chinese Ambassador to South Sudan Hua Ning Publishes an Article on Juba Monitor and No1. Citizen

      中國駐南蘇丹大使華寧在《朱巴觀察家報》《第一公民報》發表署名文章

       

      18 March 2022

      2022年3月18日

       

      I came from Zhenhai, Zhejiang Province, a beautiful town on the East coast of China, where people’s life is relatively prosperous. In 1996, responding to the call of the Central Government of China, Zhenhai formed a poverty reduction pair with Pu’an County, a “poor county” in the mountainous Wumeng area of Guizhou Province in the Southwest China. Spanning 2,000 kilometers, cadres from Zhenhai have devoted themselves to poverty alleviation in the county over the past two decades. In March last year, Pu’an County was removed from the poverty list and successfully shook off poverty. This story of the East-West cooperation in poverty relief is a vivid epitome of China’s poverty alleviation campaign.

      我的家鄉在浙江鎮海,位于中國東部沿海,生活比較富裕。1996年,在中央號召下,鎮海與中國西部貴州省烏蒙山區的“貧困縣”普安縣結成扶貧對子。二十年間,來自鎮海的干部跨越2000公里,投身中國西部山區扶貧事業。去年3月,普安縣退出貧困縣序列,成功實現脫貧。這段東西部扶貧協作故事,是中國脫貧攻堅事業的生動縮影。

       

      Over 100 years since its founding in 1921, the Communist Party of China (CPC) has unswervingly remained true to its original aspiration and the mission to seek happiness for the Chinese people and rejuvenation for the Chinese nation. Since the Reform and Opening-up in 1978, China has lifted nearly 800 million people out of poverty, which accounts for over 70% of the global reduction in poverty over the period. Since the 18th CPC National Congress in 2012, nearly 100 million people have got rid of poverty. On February 25, 2021, H.E. Xi Jinping, General Secretary of the CPC Central Committee and President of China, solemnly declared that China had secured a complete victory in its fight against poverty, which solved the historical problem of poverty that had plagued the Chinese nation for thousands of years and saw the country meet its poverty alleviation targets under the United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development 10 years ahead of schedule.

      中國共產黨自1921年成立之日起,就堅持把為中國人民謀幸福、為中華民族謀復興作為初心使命,一百年來未曾動搖。1978年改革開放以來,中國累計近8億人口擺脫貧困,占同期全球減貧人口70%以上。2012年中國共產黨十八大以來,近1億人口實現脫貧。2021年2月25日,中共中央總書記、國家主席習近平莊嚴宣告,中國脫貧攻堅取得了全面勝利,歷史性地解決了困擾中華民族幾千年的絕對貧困問題,提前10年實現聯合國2030年可持續發展議程的減貧目標。

       

      Many South Sudanese friends have asked me, what are China’s secrets of victory over poverty? I suppose the answers may be found in the following aspects.

      很多南蘇丹朋友問我,中國脫貧制勝靠的是什么?我想主要歸功于以下幾個方面。

       

      First, Strong Leadership. “The aspirations of the people to live a better life must always be the focus of our efforts”, said President Xi Jinping. In the course of building a moderately prosperous society in all respects, the poor areas cannot be left behind. This is a solemn promise by the CPC to the people. In the past eight years, President Xi Jinping has directed and led this battle against poverty in person, traveling through the mountains and rivers of 14 concentrated contiguous areas with extreme poverty. From the central to the local level, CPC chiefs at the provincial, municipal, county, township, and village levels (jointly known as “five-level party chiefs”) were required to assume the primary responsibility in this anti-poverty campaign in which more than 4 million primary-level CPC organizations and 90 million party members participated. Since 2012, a total of 255,000 teams were dispatched to offer on-the-ground support and over 3 million officials were sent to the countryside as special commissioners for poverty relief, working together with millions of township and village-level cadres. In the past eight years, more than 1,800 cadres sacrificed their lives in fighting poverty on the front lines.

      一是堅強有力領導?!叭嗣駥γ篮蒙畹南蛲?,就是我們的奮斗目標”。在中國全面建成小康社會道路上,貧困地區不能缺席,這是中國共產黨對人民的莊嚴承諾。過去八年來,習近平主席親自指揮領導這場脫貧攻堅戰,走遍14個集中連片特困地區的山山水水。從中央到地方,省、市、縣、鄉、村“五級書記”一起抓,400多萬個基層黨組織、9000多萬黨員共同參與扶貧攻堅。2012年以來,全國累計選派25.5萬個駐村工作隊、300多萬名第一書記和駐村干部,同數百萬名鄉鎮和村干部一道奮戰在扶貧一線。1800多名干部犧牲在扶貧崗位上。

       

      To ensure that every poverty alleviation policy can be implemented and every poverty alleviation fund be properly used, the relevant authorities conduct strict evaluation and supervision over poverty relief effects, showing zero tolerance for misconduct in all its forms and taking resolute measures to combat corruption related poverty alleviation.

      為確保每一項扶貧政策都能落實,每一筆扶貧資金都能發揮作用,有關部門對扶貧成效進行嚴格考核,對扶貧領域腐敗現象和不正之風“零容忍”,予以堅決打擊。

       

      Secondly, Targeted Policy. The disease of poverty could only be cured with the right prescription. China has kept detailed family archives of all poor households, established a unified and regularly updated national registration system. Tailor-made measures are designed for each impoverished family in accordance with its different conditions. For areas with resources and comparative advantages, we realize poverty alleviation through developing local industry. If it’s difficult to eliminate poverty on the spot due to natural constraints, we implement a relocation policy. In key areas of ecological protection, we increase financial transfer payments and promote ecological compensation. In response to the fact that poverty-stricken areas have weaker educational conditions and more stay-at-home children, we step up efforts to develop education. We also strengthen medical insurance and social assistance for poor people who are unable to work or suffer from serious illnesses. Through targeted poverty alleviation and comprehensive policy implementation, all people who have been lifted out of poverty need not worry about food and clothing and have access to compulsory education, basic medical services, and safe housing.

      二是“精準扶貧”方略。在脫貧攻堅路上,只有開對了“藥方子”,才能拔掉“窮根子”。中國為所有貧困戶建立家庭檔案,打造全國統一、動態更新的扶貧信息管理系統,為每戶量身制定不同脫貧方案。對于有資源條件和比較優勢的地區,采取發展生產脫貧;受自然環境限制、難以就地脫貧的,實行異地搬遷;在生態環境保護重點地區,增加財政轉移支付,實施生態補償;針對貧困地區辦學條件差、留守兒童多,采取發展教育脫貧;對喪失勞動能力或罹患重疾的貧困群眾,加強醫療保險和社會救助。通過精準扶貧、綜合施策,實現所有脫貧群眾不愁吃、不愁穿,義務教育、基本醫療、住房安全有保障。

       

      Thirdly, Infrastructure Connectivity. As a famous Chinese saying goes, “Building roads is the first step to become prosperous”. Isolation or insulation cannot bring about prosperity. Poverty alleviation cannot be achieved without the improvement of infrastructure. The Chinese government has invested heavily in promoting infrastructure connectivity in impoverished areas. By the end of 2019, China’s total length of roads in rural areas had reached 4.2 million kilometers, all townships and villages had paved roads. Now the power supply reliability rate of the rural power grid has reached 99%, and 100% of the large power grids have been connected to power current. China has expanded fiber-optic internet access and 4G coverage to more than 98% in poor villages. With the continuous advancement of infrastructure connectivity, poor areas are no longer the backwaters. They are increasingly integrated into domestic and international markets, creating enabling conditions for rural revitalization.

      三是基礎設施建設?!耙赂幌刃蘼贰?。隔絕閉塞不可能帶來富裕,貧困地區發展離不開基礎設施完善,中國政府投入大量資金推進貧困地區基礎設施建設。截至2019年底,中國農村公路里程已達420萬公里,鄉鎮和建制村100%通硬化路。農網供電可靠率達99%,大電網覆蓋范圍內100%通動力電,貧困村通光纖和4G比例均超過98%。隨著基礎設施互聯互通不斷推進,貧困群眾擺脫閉塞和落后,貧困地區日益融入國內外市場,鄉村振興基礎不斷夯實。

       

      Fourthly, Self-development Capabilities. People in poverty are not merely recipients of poverty alleviation, but also serve as agents of poverty elimination and prosperity. In China, we stimulate the enthusiasm and initiative of the poor by empowering them with “aspirations” and “intelligence” in the spirit of self-dependence and diligence with a view to ensuring the sustainability of poverty alleviation. Industry is critical to realizing steady poverty alleviation. Capitalizing on local natural resources, poverty-stricken areas have developed various businesses, thus boosting local economic growth and providing job opportunities for the poor. China takes education as the fundamental solution to poverty, giving great priority of education resources towards poverty-stricken areas, developing various forms of vocational education and skill training so that the poor can master the necessary knowledge and skills and shake off poverty through their own hard work.

      四是自主發展能力。貧困群眾既是脫貧攻堅的對象,更是脫貧致富的主體。中國堅持扶貧和扶志扶智相結合,弘揚自力更生、艱苦奮斗精神,激發貧困群眾內生動力,確保扶貧工作的可持續性。產業扶貧是穩定脫貧的有力法寶。貧困地區依托當地資源稟賦,發展各類特色產業,既帶動經濟增長,又為大量貧困人口提供就業崗位。中國緊緊扭住教育這個脫貧致富的根本之策,推動教育資源向貧困地區傾斜,開展各種形式職業教育和技能培訓,使貧困群眾掌握生產生活必需知識技能,依靠自己的辛勤勞動擺脫貧困。

       

      It has always been China’s assertion that the people are what human rights are all about. The rights to subsistence and development are the basic human rights of paramount importance. In that spirit, the Chinese government strives to achieve shared prosperity for everyone. Taking the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region as an example, all 3 million impoverished people, 3,666 poor villages and 32 poor counties in Xinjiang have been lifted out of poverty under the current standards. The problem of absolute poverty in Xinjiang has become the “past tense” and people of all ethnic groups live and work in peace and contentment.

      中方始終認為,人是人權之本,生存權和發展權是首要基本人權,中國政府致力于實現全國各族人民共同富裕。以新疆維吾爾自治區為例,現行標準下300多萬貧困人口全部脫貧,3666個貧困村全部退出,32個貧困縣全部摘帽。新疆絕對貧困問題成為“過去時”,各族群眾安居樂業,過上了安寧幸福生活。

       

      Eliminating poverty is a common goal for the peoples of China and South Sudan. As friend and brother, China is vigorously extending a helping hand to South Sudan while eradicating its own poverty. Over the years, based on the needs of the South Sudanese government and people, China has provided assistance as its ability allows in promoting the humanitarian conditions, advancing the peace process, and enhancing the self-development capabilities of South Sudan.

      擺脫貧困是中國和南蘇丹人民孜孜以求的共同目標。作為朋友和兄弟,中國在消除自身貧困同時,也積極向南方伸出援手。多年來,我們根據南政府和人民需要,在緩解南人道主義危機、促進南和平進程、增強南自我發展能力方面提供力所能及的幫助。

       

      In response to the humanitarian crisis and people’s livelihood difficulties in South Sudan, the Chinese government provides food aid among other emergency humanitarian assistance every year. A number of livelihood projects have been constructed with Chinese aid such as the new Juba Teaching Hospital, Kiir Mayardit Women’s Hospital in Rumbek, Jubek Model Martyrs Secondary School and Juba China Friendship Secondary School. China also provides hundreds of scholarships and training opportunities to South Sudan annually, expanding access of local people to quality health care and education.

      面對南人道主義危機和民生困難,中國政府每年提供糧食等緊急人道主義援助,援建了新朱巴教學醫院、倫拜克基爾·馬亞爾迪特婦女醫院、朱貝克烈士示范中學、古德里中南友誼學校等一批民生工程,向南提供政府獎學金和各類培訓,幫助更多南人民獲得醫療、教育的機會。

       

      There will be no sound development without peace. It’s a common dream of the South Sudanese people to realize permanent peace. China has actively played a constructive role in advancing the peace process in South Sudan by taking the lead in providing in-kind assistance for implementing the “Revitalized Agreement” and building a unified army.

      沒有和平就沒有發展,實現永久和平是南人民共同夢想。中國率先為南落實《重振協議》提供物資援助,支持南統一軍隊建設,為促進南和平進程積極發揮建設性作用。

       

      We also support peace through development. China has provided free grants and concessional loans to develop major infrastructure projects including Juba International Airport, Air Traffic Control System, and Jur River Bridge for the purpose of strengthening South Sudan’s development potential. These projects have taken into full consideration South Sudan’s economic situation and debt sustainability. According to the statistics of the International Monetary Fund (IMF), so far Chinese loan only accounts for about 10% of South Sudan’s total loans, and most of South Sudan’s debts are commercial loans issued by financial institutions of other countries and regions.

      我們堅持以發展促和平,利用無償援助、優惠貸款幫助南建設朱巴國際機場、空中交通管理、瓦烏朱爾河大橋等基礎設施項目,幫助南增強發展后勁。有關項目充分考慮到南經濟狀況和債務可持續性。根據國際貨幣基金組織統計,中方貸款只占南貸款總額的一成左右,南大多數債務屬于其他國家和地區金融機構發放的商業貸款。

       

      “Nothing can separate people who share the same vision,” as an ancient Chinese poem says. Upholding the vision of building a community with a shared future for mankind, China firmly supports South Sudan in taking a development path that suits its own national conditions, and stands ready to deepen exchanges and cooperation in fields including poverty reduction and development. China is also willing to step up cooperation with relevant countries and international organizations to jointly assist South Sudan in ensuring food security, reducing poverty and achieving sustainable development at an early date.

      “與君遠相知,不道云海深”。中方秉持人類命運共同體理念,堅定支持南方走符合自身國情的發展道路,愿同南方在減貧發展領域深化交流合作。中方也愿同有關國家和國際組織加強合作,共同幫助南方早日實現糧食安全、擺脫貧困,實現可持續發展。

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