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      雙語:張軍大使在“非洲和平與安全:加強能力建設,實現持久和平”公開辯論會上的發言
      發布時間:2022年10月20日     發布人: nanyuzi
      來源: 常駐聯合國代表團
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      張軍大使在“非洲和平與安全:加強能力建設,實現持久和平”公開辯論會上的發言

      Remarks by Ambassador Zhang Jun at the UN Security Council Open Debate on Peace and Security in Africa: Capacity-Building for Sustaining Peace

       

      2022年8月8日

      8 August 2022

       

      各位同事,

      Dear Colleagues,

       

      我感謝阿德奧耶委員、杜阿爾特副秘書長和穆希特大使的通報。你們的真知灼見帶給我們重要啟發。我也要熱烈歡迎各國代表特別是非洲國家代表出席今天的會議。

      I thank Commissioner Adeoye, Special Adviser Duarte, and Ambassador Muhith for their briefings. Your insights are all very enlightening. I also warmly welcome representatives of all countries, especially African ones, to today’s meeting.

       

      非洲是人類文明的發祥地。在這片偉大的大陸上,勤勞勇敢的非洲人民創造了燦爛的非洲文明,也長期遭遇奴隸貿易、種族歧視、殖民統治和外來干涉等深重苦難。在泛非主義引領下,非洲國家和人民聯合自強,贏得國家獨立和民族尊嚴,并積極探索適合本國國情的發展道路,取得令人矚目的成就,在世界舞臺上發揮著越來越重要的作用。

      Africa is the birthplace of human civilization. On this great continent, the industrious and brave African people have created splendid African civilizations. But it has also been a land long steeped in hardships caused by slave trade, racial discrimination, colonial rule, and foreign interference. Guided by Pan-Africanism, African countries and people have united to win national independence and dignity. They have also worked hard to explore development paths suited to their national conditions, and made remarkable achievements. They are playing an increasingly important on the world stage.

       

      同時,面對不公正不合理的國際政治經濟秩序和各種全球性危機與風險,非洲國家長期以來被動承受著附帶傷害,甚至成為域外地緣沖突的主要受害者,一些國家和平進程屢遭打斷,來之不易的發展成果出現逆轉。安理會需要深刻反思,在幫助非洲爭取持久和平方面,國際社會是否抓住了根源性問題?有沒有滿足非洲國家的真實需求?

      At the same time, in the face of unfair and unjust international political and economic order and all kinds of global crises and risks, African countries have always been on the receiving end of the collateral damage, and have even become main victims of conflicts outside their region. In some countries, peace processes have been repeatedly interrupted, and hard-own development gains reversed. The Security Council needs to do some deep thinking in helping Africa achieve lasting peace. Has the international community rightly addressed the root causes and met the real needs of African countries?

       

      中國一直與非洲相互支持,命運與共。作為發展中國家,對非洲的遭遇和需求感同身受。結合對中國自身發展、中非合作經驗和國際歷史教訓的思考,我們認為,要幫助非洲實現長治久安,必須持續不斷加大投入,同時要謀長遠、固根本,增強非洲自身的造血機能,提高非洲應對外部沖擊的免疫力。在這方面,能力建設是最為關鍵的一個環節。

      China and Africa have always supported each other and shared weal and woe. Africa’s experiences and needs resonate with us as a developing country. Considering China’s own development experience, experience from China-Africa cooperation, and the historical lessons from all over the world, we believe that to help Africa achieve long-term stability, it is imperative to make sustained and increased investments, have long-term thinking, and build a strong foundation for Africa to strengthen its own development capacity and improve its resilience to external shocks. In this regard, capacity building is the most crucial part.

       

      第一,要支持非洲國家加強政府治理能力。在維護和平與安全方面,非洲國家政府是本國人民的代表,是最重要的行動主體,是應對沖突危機、促進發展重建、凝聚社會團結的核心力量。很多非洲國家的成功實踐充分說明了這一點??夏醽?、烏干達、塞內加爾、盧旺達、喀麥隆、加蓬等國迅速實現疫后復蘇,布隆迪、塞拉利昂、科特迪瓦發展重建順利推進,尼日利亞、莫桑比克打擊恐怖主義取得重要成果。這些成就同各國政府強大的領導力、高效的執行力密不可分。

      First, we should support African countries in strengthening governance capacity. In terms of maintaining peace and security, African governments, as representatives of their own people, are the most important actors. They are the core to respond to conflict and crisis, promote development and reconstruction, and rally social solidarity. The success stories of many African countries fully demonstrate this point. Kenya, Uganda, Senegal, Rwanda, Cameroon, and Gabon, among others, have rapidly recovered from the pandemic. Burundi, Sierra Leone, and Cote d’Ivoire are progressing smoothly in development and reconstruction. Nigeria and Mozambique have had some major wins in combating terrorism. These achievements have a lot to do with the strong leadership and efficient administration of the governments.

       

      加強政府治理能力應堅持正確的方向,尊重各國人民自主選擇的發展道路和社會制度。因此,國際社會幫助非洲時,應該尊重和信任非洲國家政府,把合作重點和援助資源向政府部門傾斜,增強政府權威,支持政府發揮主導作用。不能為援助附加政治條件,不能干涉非洲國家內政甚至越俎代庖取代當地政府作用。對于沖突后國家,推進政治過渡、籌備和舉行選舉只是第一步,做好選后的全方位工作更為重要。要支持新成立的政府行使國家權力,幫助新政府盡快立足、逐步完善,而不是一味指責挑刺,更不能搞“民主改造”、動輒施壓制裁那一套。

      To enhance government capacity, we need to maintain the right direction and respect the independently chosen development pathway and social system by their peoples. So when the international community helps African countries, it should respect and trust African governments, tilt cooperation priorities and aid resources to government departments, strengthen government authority, and support governments in playing a leading role. There should be no political conditions attached to aid, nor should there be interference in internal affairs of African countries, or to replace the role of local governments. For post-conflict countries, political transition, preparing for and holding elections are only the first step. More important is to deliver on the many tasks to come after elections. We should support the newly established governments in exercising state authority, and help them establish themselves as soon as possible and improve gradually, instead of endless criticism and fault-finding, let alone attempt of “democratic transformation” and arbitrary use of sanctions for exerting pressure.

       

      第二,要支持非洲國家提升安全部門履職能力。一些非洲國家面臨恐怖主義、暴力極端主義、族群沖突等安全威脅,只有建立本國專業、高效、強有力的安全部門才能有效應對威脅。外來的安全力量不能代替也代替不了自身的努力。

      Second, it is important to support African countries in improving security sectors’ capacity to perform their duties. Some African countries face security threats from inter alia terrorism, violent extremism, and inter-communal conflicts. Only with their own professional, efficient, strong security sectors, can they effectively respond to these threats. External security forces cannot and will not be a substitute for their own efforts.

       

      聯合國在非洲部署的一些維和行動,近年來人員數量和預算規模越來越大,授權任務越來越多,但駐在國安全形勢卻未見好轉,當事國政府和人民不滿增多。我們主張認真聽取非洲國家聲音,全面審查這些維和行動,改革不適應形勢的做法,合理制定授權,提升維和績效。安理會對蘇丹、南蘇丹、索馬里、剛果(金)等國實施的武器禁運,對提升當事國安全部門能力造成負面影響,應予及時調整和取消。非盟和平行動供資是個老大難問題,要想辦法解決。古特雷斯秘書長建議通過聯合國常規預算或維和攤款對此提供資金支持,這是一個重要思路,值得安理會積極研究。

      In recent years, some peacekeeping operations deployed by UN in Africa have been expanding both size and budget, tasked with more and more mandates, while the security situations in host countries have not improved much. Complaints from their governments and people are on the rise. We believe that we should heed carefully the voices of African countries, conduct comprehensive reviews of these peacekeeping operations, reform practices that do not fit the situation on the ground, develop sound mandates, and enhance peacekeeping performance. Arms embargoes imposed by the Council on countries such as Sudan, South Sudan, Somalia, and the DRC have a negative impact on capacity building of security sectors in these countries. They need to be adjusted and lifted in time. The funding of AU-led peace operations has been a persistent difficulty. It calls for a solution. Secretary-General Guterres suggested that funding to this end be provided from UN’s regular budget or peacekeeping assessments. This is an important proposal, and should be well considered by the Council.

       

      第三,要支持非洲國家提高可持續發展能力。發展是和平與安全的基石。沖突后國家政治過渡、發展重建、民生改善,無一不需要大量的資金和資源支撐。外來人道援助固然不可或缺,但根本之道還是做大發展的蛋糕,讓當事國擁有更多資源手段維護安全。中國提出“非洲之角和平發展構想”,支持修建蒙內鐵路、亞吉鐵路等互聯互通基礎設施,促進非洲本土產業發展,就是基于發展促和平的理念。

      Third, we need to support African countries in improving their sustainable development capacities. Development is the cornerstone of peace and security. For post-conflict countries, political transition, reconstruction and development, and livelihood improvements all require significant financial support and resources. External humanitarian assistance is indispensable, but the key to development is to make the pie bigger, so that these countries can have more resources and means to maintain security. China has proposed an outlook on peace and development in the Horn of Africa, supported connectivity infrastructure projects, including the Mombasa-Nairobi railway and the Ethiopia-Djibouti railway, and worked to promote development of local industries in Africa. These are all based on the very idea that development promotes peace.

       

      當前,非洲大陸正面臨經濟、金融、糧食、能源等多重挑戰,這與當前的國際局勢動蕩有關,更深層次原因是不公正不合理的國際經濟秩序。非洲國家被限制在全球產業鏈的低端,沒有足夠資源和能力抵御風險。當主要經濟體出于自身需要調整貨幣政策時,其外溢效應在非洲就可能掀起金融龍卷風。當非洲面臨糧食和能源短缺時,發達國家的主要糧商和石油企業卻賺的盆滿缽滿。非洲國家強烈希望擺脫這種不公平的待遇,國際社會有責任予以支持,幫助非洲推進工業化,加快基礎設施現代化,實現金融自主、增強經濟自立。發達國家要盡快兌現氣候融資方面的承諾,向非洲補上歷史欠賬。

      At present, the African continent is beset with economic, financial, food, energy and other challenges. These are related to a turbulent international situation, but the underlying cause is the unjust and unfair international economic order. African countries are trapped in the low end of the global industrial chain, and do not have enough resources and capacities to withstand risks. When major economies, out of their own needs, change their monetary policies, the spillover effect will trigger a financial tornado in Africa. While Africa is in food and energy shortages, major grain traders and oil companies in developed countries are having their windfalls. African countries have expressed strong wishes for such unfair treatment to end, and the international community has the obligation to support them by helping Africa industrialize, accelerate infrastructure modernization, achieve financial autonomy, and increase economic independence. Developed countries should honor their commitments on climate financing as soon as possible, and make up for what they owed to Africa in history.

       

      第四,要支持非洲國家培養壯大人才隊伍。人力資源是能力建設的基礎,代表著前途未來。非洲一半以上人口是青年,有著全世界潛力最充沛的人才庫。國際社會要幫助非洲國家根據發展重建、經濟社會需要,培養更多急需人才。特別要鼓勵沖突國家加大對青年、兒童的政策保障和資源投入,擴大發展和教育領域專項援助。要加強青年教育和職業技能培訓,提供更多就業機會和創業支持,幫助青年擺脫貧困。同時要支持非洲推進去極端化措施,防止恐怖和極端思想對青年的侵蝕。

      Fourth, we need to support African countries in building a bigger talent pool. Human resources are the basis of capacity building. It represents the future. Over half of the population in Africa are young people, which means it has a talent pool of the greatest potential in the world. The international community should help African countries train more talents based on the urgent needs in reconstruction and social and economic development. There is a particular need to encourage countries affected by conflict to enhance policy support and resource input for youth and children, and expand special assistance in development and education. There is also a need to enhance education and vocational training for the young people, and provide them with more job opportunities and entrepreneurship support, so that they can live a life free of poverty. Africa also needs our support in deradicalization efforts to protect young minds from terrorist and extremist ideology.

       

      各位同事,

      Colleagues,

       

      古特雷斯秘書長把非洲稱為世界“希望之源”,我們對此高度認同。世界的和平與發展離不開非洲,非洲取得更大進步也將帶給世界更多希望和光明。幫助非洲提升能力建設是國際社會共同的責任。無論國際形勢如何變化,我們都應該保持對非洲的關注和投入,不能因為其他問題而忽視非洲、讓非洲議題邊緣化。中國始終秉持正確義利觀和真實親誠理念發展對非關系。我們愿同非洲國家一道,堅持共同、綜合、合作、可持續的安全觀,維護以聯合國為核心的國際體系,維護國際公平正義,以推動落實全球安全倡議為契機,促進非洲實現可持續的和平與安全。習近平主席一年前提出了全球發展倡議,聚焦非洲國家發展中面臨的迫切難題,我們愿積極推進全球發展倡議和中非合作論壇成果,同非洲國家共同落實中非合作的“九項工程”,深化務實合作,更好造福于非洲。愿與國際伙伴攜手合作,為非洲實現持久和平與發展貢獻更多力量。

      Secretary-General Guterres said that Africa is a source of hope for the world. We cannot agree more. The peace and development of the world cannot be realized without Africa. Greater progress in Africa will also bring more hope and light to the world. Helping Africa on capacity building is the common responsibility of the international community. No matter how the international situation evolves, we should keep our focus on and commitment to Africa. We should not ignore issues in Africa. We should not allow African issues to be marginalized. China always upholds the principles of pursuing greater good and shared interests, and the principles of sincerity, real results, amity, and good faith in its relations with Africa. We are ready to work with African countries to stay committed a vision of common, comprehensive, cooperative, and sustainable security, and defend the international system with the UN at its core, safeguard international fairness and justice, and take the opportunity of implementing the Global Security Initiative to promote sustainable peace and security in Africa. President Xi Jinping proposed the Global Development Initiative a year ago, which focuses on urgent challenges in the development of African countries. We are ready to actively promote the Global Development Initiative and the outcomes of FOCAC by working together with African countries to implement the nine programs of China-Africa cooperation. We will deepen practical cooperation with Africa to deliver more benefits to the continent. China would also like to cooperate with international partners to contribute further to the lasting peace and development in Africa.

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