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      《浮生六記》英譯閱讀與討論(一)
      發布時間:2020年02月01日     發布人:nanyuzi  
      來源: 英語世界
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      《浮生六記》英譯閱讀與討論(一)


      文/劉士聰


      沈復的《浮生六記》目前有三個譯本:


      1. Six Chapters of A Floating Life(林語堂譯)

      2. Six Records of a Floating Life(Translated by Leonard Pratt and Chiang Su-hui)

      3. Chapters from a Floating Life(Translated by Shirley M. Black)


      “閱讀與討論”文字,中文取自《浮生六記》(淮茗注釋,中州古籍出版社,鄭州,2010);英譯文取自譯本3。


      閱讀討論《浮生六記》譯文Chapters from a Floating Life,也讀原文,了解乾隆朝一個普通文人的家庭生活、夫妻的恩愛與不幸,以及他們的藝術審美情趣。我們驚嘆沈復古文修養之好,他的文字,不論是《閨房記樂》還是《坎坷記愁》,讓人感動,讓人同情。關于譯文,譯者在其譯文《前言》里有一段敘述:


      In translating the memoirs I have tried first of all to recreate the subtle emotional atmosphere, at once tragic, passionate and gay, which is, in my opinion, the outstanding characteristic of Shen Fu’s original. I have also tried to be as meticulous as I could in expressing the exact meaning of the Chinese words, at the same time trying to approximate the feeling of the author’s own way of expressing himself. This is a rather difficult job with languages as different from one another as Chinese and English and I do not know that I have even partially succeeded.


      這段文字對我們閱讀和理解她的譯文很重要,她有如下三種嘗試:第一,tried... to recreate the subtle emotional atmosphere; 第二,tried to be as meticulous as I could in expressing the exact meaning of the Chinese words;第三,trying to approximate the feeling of the author’s own way of expressing himself。閱讀譯文時應想到譯者的這幾條意旨,在她的譯文里,我們常??吹降牟皇亲衷~的對譯,而是對語義濃縮的文言進行解讀,用英語將其內在含義說透,且行文自然流暢,少有翻譯腔。這種譯法考慮了譯文讀者,也展示了一個翻譯策略,我們不妨稱之為“釋義”翻譯。


      在談到中國文論和中國古典哲學著作中的術語翻譯時,宇文所安說,“……其實沒有什么最佳的翻譯,只有好的解說。任何翻譯都對原文有所改變,而且,任何一種傳統的核心概念和術語的翻譯都存在這個問題;……”1中國古典文學作品,也包括現當代文學作品,有很多敘述和描寫的語匯,習慣上可能不叫“術語”,但它們的翻譯,宇文所安的“解說”思想也適用。Shirley M. Black在翻譯《浮生六記》時似乎就是這樣做的,請閱讀時留意。


      如,在描寫陳蕓時有這樣的文字:

      “其形削肩長頸,瘦不露骨,眉彎目秀,顧盼神飛,唯兩齒微露,似非佳相。一種纏綿之態,令人之意也消?!?


      “顧盼神飛”一詞是這樣翻譯的:Her glance sparkled with intelligence and humour...


      《紅樓夢》第三回描寫探春時也用了這個詞:

      “第二個削肩細腰,長挑身材,鴨蛋臉兒,俊眼修眉,顧盼神飛,文彩精華,見之忘俗?!?


      霍克斯2譯文:... large, expressive eyes shot out glances that sparkled with animation.


      諸如這類詞語在英語里難找到對應詞,翻譯只能對其進行解釋,隨譯者的理解,解釋的文字也不盡相同。


      《浮生六記》譯文對原文有刪減,對情節有編排;細觀全文,偶爾有誤解和誤譯,翻譯這樣的文字,任何譯者都難免。

       

      譯例1


      【原文】余生乾隆癸未冬十一月二十有二日,正值太平盛世,且在衣冠之家,居蘇州滄浪亭畔,天之厚我,可謂至矣。東坡云:“事如春夢了無痕?!逼埐挥浿P墨,未免有辜彼蒼之厚。


      【譯文】I was born in 1763, at a time of peace and unusual prosperity, in the reign of the Emperor Ch’ien Lung, on the twenty-second day of the eleventh month, in the winter of the year of the sheep. Mine was a full-dress family, one of scholars and gentle-people, who lived near the gardens of the Ts’ang-lang Pavilion, in the city of Soochow.

      The gods, I should say, have always been more than generous to me; but, as the poet Su Tung-p’o wrote:

      ‘Life is like a spring dream

      which ends—and leaves no traces.’

      By setting down this story of mine, then, I hope to show my gratitude for Heaven’s many favours. (p1)


      【簡評】可就以上譯文思考下面幾個問題:


      1. 譯文第一句語序的變化,譯者為什么選擇這樣譯;2“. 太平盛世”譯法;3.“ 事如春夢了無痕”譯文;4.“ 茍不記之筆墨,未免有辜彼蒼之厚”將意義否定的句子譯為肯定句。


      譯例2


      【原文】……時但見滿室鮮衣,蕓獨通體素淡,僅新其鞋而已。見其繡制精巧,詢為己作,始知其慧心不僅在筆墨也?!颈尘埃呵∫椅矗?775)冬,蕓之“堂姐出閣,余又隨母往”,作者對所見蕓的裝束描述如下:】


      【譯文】The house was gay, on this ceremonious occasion, with the rainbow-hued new robes of the family and the wedding guests. Yuen alone, looked her quiet, simple self, having added nothing to her everyday dress but a pair of bright new shoes. When I had admired the artistry of their embroidery and learned that she had made the shoes herself, I began to understand that Yuen was extremely capable and practical; that reading, writing, and composing poetry were only a few of her many accomplishments. (p5)


      【簡評】譯者運用想象,描寫婚禮場景,“滿室鮮衣”,譯作家人和客人色彩鮮艷的新衣; gay(brightly colored) 和rainbow-hued(in different colors),是意義一致的兩個形容詞,意為“亮麗、多彩”;“蕓獨通體素淡”,譯文“Yuen alone, looked her quiet, simple self”,不只指蕓的穿著,更指她歷來以“素淡”為美,意義深一層?!肮P墨”,《現代漢語詞典》中解釋為“指文字或詩文書畫等”,譯者將其譯作“reading, writing, and composing poetry”,很符合原文所指,且具體、確切,譯文讀者好懂。


      譯者充分挖掘原文內涵,做符合原文的“解說”和“補償”,譯文不淺不薄,有血有肉有味道,考慮了讀者對譯文的期盼。


      注釋:


      1. 見《中國文論》導言,第15頁。

       

      2. 指戴維·霍克斯(David Hawkes,1923—2009),著名漢學家,年輕時即翻譯《楚辭》(The Songs of the South),其著作A Little Primer of Tu Fu是頗具權威且廣為人知的唐詩翻譯作品,而他的譯作The Story of the Stone(《紅樓夢》)更是身為翻譯家的非凡成就,為了全心致力于此翻譯計劃,他于1971 年辭去牛津大學中文系系主任一職。

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