A linguistic theory devised by the British linguist M. A. K. Halliday in the early 1960s in which the structure of language is seen as an intersecting set of scales and categories operating at different levels. Linguistic analysis in this view proceeds by establishing four theoretical ‘categories’ - units, structures, classes and systems - and interrelating these by the ‘scale’ of rank, exponence and delicacy. (This use of ‘scale’ should not be confused with that found in phonology, in relation to strength values.) In the late 1960s, parts of this approach were superseded by a systemic model of analysis.
英國語言學家M. A. K.韓禮德在本世紀60年代初創立的一種語言學理論。這一理論將語言結構視為在不同平面上起作用的互相交叉的一組階和一組范疇。按這種觀點，語言分析從建立四個理論“范疇”—單位、結構、類、系統—開始，然而將其與三個“階”—級、釋示、精度—聯系起來。（這種涵義的“階”應與音系學談論的與強度有關的“階”相區別。）到60年代后期，這一類理論的相當部分為一個分析的系統模型所取代。