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      Semantics
      發布時間:2019年01月22日     發布人:nanyuzi  
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      Semantics

      語義學

       

      A major branch of linguistics devoted to the study of meaning in language. The term is also used in philosophy and logic, but not with the same range of meaning or emphasis as in linguistics. Philosophical semantics examines the relations between linguistic expressions and the phenomena in the world to which they refer, and considers the conditions under which such expressions can be said to be true or false, and the factors which affect the interpretation of language as used. ‘Logical’ or ‘pure’ semantics (formal semantics) is the study of the meaning of expressions in terms of logical systems of analysis, or calculi, and is thus more akin to formal logic or mathematics than to linguistics. Different linguists’ approaches to meaning none the less illustrate the influence of general philosophical or psychological positions. Structural semantics displays the applications of the principles of structural linguistics to the study of meaning through the notion of semantic relations. Semantic meaning may here be used, in contradistinction to ‘grammatical meaning’. The linguistic structuring of semantic space is also a major concern of generative linguistics, where the term ‘semantic’ is widely used in relation to the grammar’s organization (one section being referred to as the semantic component) and to the analysis of sentences (in terms of a semantic representation) and of lexical items (in terms of semantic features). Other terms used to distinguish features of meaning in this and other theories include ‘semantic markers / distinguishers / properties’ and (in an unrelated sense to the above) ‘semantic components’.

       

      語言學一大分支,研究語言的意義。這一術語也用于哲學和邏輯學,但其涵義不像語言學那么廣,地位也不那么重要。哲理語義學考察詞語與其所指的外界現象之間的關系,考慮這些詞語可判斷為真或假的條件和影響語言使用和理解的因素?!斑壿嫛被颉凹兝怼闭Z義學是用分析的邏輯系統或演算來研究詞語的意義,因此更接近于形式邏輯或數學而不是語言學。語言學的研究重點在自然語言(而不是邏輯“語言”)的語義特性,為便于區別常用“語言語義學”稱之。不同的語言學家對意義的研究取向體現出一般哲學或心理學立場的影響。結構語義學是用結構語言學的原則借助語義關系的概念來研究意義。這里可用“語義意義”的名稱來區別于“語法意義”?!罢Z義空間”的語言結構方式也是生成語言學主要關心的問題,其中“語義”一詞廣泛用于語法的組織(一個組成部分稱作語義部分),也用于句子分析(有語義表征式)和詞項分析(有語義特征)。這種理論和其他理論用來區分意義特征的術語還有“語義標記/區別成分/特性”和(上述涵義無關的)“語義成分”。

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      在线精品国产一区二区三区,欧美最猛性XXXXX大叫,亚欧美日韩香蕉在线播放视频