A major branch of linguistics devoted to the study of meaning in language. The term is also used in philosophy and logic, but not with the same range of meaning or emphasis as in linguistics. Philosophical semantics examines the relations between linguistic expressions and the phenomena in the world to which they refer, and considers the conditions under which such expressions can be said to be true or false, and the factors which affect the interpretation of language as used. ‘Logical’ or ‘pure’ semantics (formal semantics) is the study of the meaning of expressions in terms of logical systems of analysis, or calculi, and is thus more akin to formal logic or mathematics than to linguistics. Different linguists’ approaches to meaning none the less illustrate the influence of general philosophical or psychological positions. Structural semantics displays the applications of the principles of structural linguistics to the study of meaning through the notion of semantic relations. Semantic meaning may here be used, in contradistinction to ‘grammatical meaning’. The linguistic structuring of semantic space is also a major concern of generative linguistics, where the term ‘semantic’ is widely used in relation to the grammar’s organization (one section being referred to as the semantic component) and to the analysis of sentences (in terms of a semantic representation) and of lexical items (in terms of semantic features). Other terms used to distinguish features of meaning in this and other theories include ‘semantic markers / distinguishers / properties’ and (in an unrelated sense to the above) ‘semantic components’.