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      Semiotics
      發布時間:2019年01月25日     發布人:nanyuzi  
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      Semiotics

      符號學

       

      The scientific study of the properties of signaling systems, whether natural or artificial. In its oldest sense, it refers to the study within philosophy of sign and symbol systems in general. In this approach, linguistic, psychological, philosophical and sociological characteristics of communicative systems are studied together. The philosophers Charles Peirce (1834-1914), Charles Morris (1901-1979) and later Rudolf Carnap (1891-1970) saw the field as divisible into three areas: semantics, the study of the relations between linguistic expression and the objects in the world which they refer to or describe; syntactics, the study of the relation of these expressions to each other; and pragmatics, the study of the dependence of the meaning of these expressions on their users (including the social situation in which they are used). In the second part of the twentieth century, the term ‘semiotics’ came to be applied to the analysis of pattered human communication in all its sensory modes, i.e. hearing, sight, taste, touch and smell. The branch of the subject which has received most study is the vocal-auditory mode, primary through the subjects of phonetics and linguistics.

       

      符號學是對信號系統(不管是自然的還是人造的)特性的科學研究。按其最古老的涵義,符號學指哲學內對一般符號和記號系統的研究。這種研究把信遞系統的語言學、心理學、哲學、社會學等特性放在一起研究。哲學家查爾斯·皮爾斯(1834—1914)、查爾斯·莫里斯(生于1901)和后期的魯道夫·卡納魯(1891—1970)都認為符號學可分為三個方面:語義學研究詞語和其所指或描寫的外界事物之間的關系;語形學研究詞語和詞語之間的關系;語用學研究詞語的意義和詞語的使用者(也包括使用的社會情境)之間的關系。二十世紀后期以來,符號學研究已逐漸應用于分析人類信遞型式的各種感覺道,即聽覺、視覺、味覺、觸覺和嗅覺。研究得最多的方面是發聲—聽覺方式的信遞,主要是語音學和語言學的研究內容。

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