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      Variable
      發布時間:2019年02月26日     發布人:nanyuzi  
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      Variable

      1)變形詞

      2)變項

      3)變項

       

      (1) A term used in the grammatical classification of words to refer to one of two postulated major word-classes in language, the other being invariable. Variable words are said to be those which express grammatical relationships through a change of form, e.g. boy / boys, walk / walking, nice / nicer. Invariable (or invariant) words are unchanging, whatever their distribution, e.g. in, on, and.

      (2) The term has been introduced into sociolinguistics by the American linguist William Labov (b.1927) to refer to the units in a language which are most subject to social or stylistic variation, and thus most susceptible to change in the long term. Sets of phonological, grammatical and lexical variables are described quantitatively with reference to such factors as social class, age and sex, and the results of this co-variation are stated in the form of variable rules. Variable rules are generative rules which have been modified so as to specify the socio-regional conditions under which they apply. The notion has been developed primarily in relation to hypotheses concerning the relationship between social variation and linguistic evolution.

      (3) The term is also widely used in grammar and semantics in its general sense of a symbol which may assume any of a set of values. For example, a category variable (e.g. X) stands for any level of bar projection of X (e.g. Xn stands for X0?, X?, X?). Pro-forms are often analysed semantically as variables, especially when they are bound by quantificational antecedents. In government-binding theory, the term refers to an A-bar-bound trace.

       

      (1)語法有時假設語言的詞分為兩大類,即變形詞和不變形詞。變形詞是通過改變形式表達語法關系的詞,如boy / boys“男孩”(單數/復數),walk / walking“走”(原形/-ing形式),nice / nicer“好”(原級/比較級)。不變形詞不管分布如何都不改變形式,如in“在…里”,on“在…上”,and“和”。

      (2)美國語言學家威廉·拉波夫(生于1927)引入社會語言學的術語,指語言中最容易產生社會或風格變異,因而從長期看最容易發生演變的那些單位。音系的、詞匯的、語法的各組變項可參照社會等級、年齡和性別等因素作定量描寫,然后用變項規則的形式說明這種協同變異的結果。變項規則是經過修改的生成規則,因而能指明其使適用的社會—地域條件。這個概念的提出主要與社會變異與語言演化之間有聯系的假說有關。

      (3)按一般涵義廣泛用于語法和語義學,指一個數量項在一組值中可取任何一個值。例如,一個范疇變項(例如X)代表任何一個詞層面的主要范疇(如N,P,Adj);一個杠變項在X-杠句法中代表X的任何一個層面的杠投射(如Xn代表X0,X?,X?)。在管轄與約束理論中變項是約束理論的一個重要組成部分。

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      在线精品国产一区二区三区,欧美最猛性XXXXX大叫,亚欧美日韩香蕉在线播放视频