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      Stratificational Grammar
      發布時間:2019年03月01日     發布人:nanyuzi  
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      Stratificational Grammar

      層次語法

       

      A linguistic theory devised by the American linguist Sydney M. Lamb (b.1929), as expounded initially in Outline of Stratificational Grammar (1962), which models language as a system of several related layers (or strata) of structure. Six strata are recognized for English and many other languages: the component of phonology comprises the hypophonemic (or phonetic) and phonemic strata; grammar comprises morphemic and lexemic strata; and semology comprises the sememic and hypersememic (or semantic) strata. Each stratum is organized in terms of a set of stratal systems, and each system deals with an aspect of linguistic structure which has to be stated independently of the structures operating at other strata. Two types of patterning are recognized: tactic analysis (the patterns of sequential arrangement within each stratum) and realizational analysis (the relationship between units operating at higher and lower levels between strata). A parallel terminology is used for each stratum: there is a ‘hypophonemic / phonemic / morphonemic / lexemic / sememic / hypersememic’ system consisting of various structural patterns (e.g. ‘hypophonotactic / phonotactic’, etc.), defined in terms of ‘hypophonemes / phonemes’, etc., and realized as ‘hypophons / phons / morphons / lexons’, etc.

       

      美國語言學家西德尼·M.蘭姆(生于1929)創立的一種語言學理論,最初的闡述見《層次語法綱要》(1962)。這種理論構建的語言模型是幾個相關聯的結構層面(或“層次”)組成的一個系統。英語和許多其他語言可分出六個層次:音系學部分包括超音位(或語音)和音位兩個層次;語法部分包括語素和詞位兩個層次;意義學部分包括義位和超義位(或語義)兩個層次。每個層次的組織是一組“層次系統”,每個系統處理語言結構的一個方面,對這個方面的說明必須獨立于其他層次上的結構。還分出兩類型式:組配分析(每個層次內的順序配列型式)和實現分析(層次內較高和較低層面單位之間的關系型式)。每個層次采用對應的術語:有“超音位/音位/語素/詞位/義位/超義位”等系統,由相應的結構型式(如“超音位組配/音位組配”等)組成,用“超音位/音位”等來定義,并實現為“超音子/音子/語子/詞子”等。

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