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      Transitivity
      發布時間:2019年03月28日     發布人:nanyuzi  
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      Transitivity

      及物性

       

      A category used in the grammatical analysis of clause / sentence constructions, with particular reference to the verb’s relationship to dependent elements of structure. The main member of this category are transitive (tr, trans), referring to a verb which can take a direct object, and intransitive (intr, intrans), where it cannot. Many verbs can have both a transitive and an intransitive use, and in some languages this distinction is marked morphologically. More complex relationships between a verb and the elements dependent upon it are usually classified separately. For example, verbs which take two objects are sometimes called ditransitive. There are also several uses of verbs which are marginal to one or other of these categories, as in pseudo-intransitive constructions (e.g. the eggs are selling well, where an agent is assumed - ‘someone is selling the eggs’ - unlike normal intransitive constructions, which do not have an agent transform: we went, but not someone went us). Some grammarians also talk about (in)transitive prepositions. For example, with is a transitive preposition, as it must always be accompanied by a noun phrase complement (object), and along can be transitive or intransitive: cf. She was walking along the river v. She was walking along.

       

      小句/句子的語法分析使用的一個范疇,特別指動詞與結構中依附成分的關系。這個范疇的主要成員就是及物和不及物,前者指動詞能帶一個直接賓語,后者指動詞不能帶直接賓語。許多動詞有及物和不及物兩種用法,在有的語言中這種區別用形態來表示。動詞與其依附成分之間較復雜的關系通常另行分類。例如能帶兩個賓語的動詞有時稱作雙及物動詞。還有一些動詞的用法介于這些范疇之間,例如假不及物構式(如the eggs are selling well“雞蛋賣得很旺”,其中施事是無需說明的—someone is selling the eggs“某人在賣雞蛋”—與一般的不及物構式不同,后者不能有施事轉換:we went“我們去了”不能說成someone went us“某人去了我們”)。有些語法學家區分及物和不及物介詞。例如with“和…一起;用”是一個及物介詞,總是帶一個名詞短語補語(賓語),而along“沿著”則是及物和不及物兩可的:比較She was walking along the river“她正沿著河走”,She was walking along“她正順著往前走”。

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      在线精品国产一区二区三区,欧美最猛性XXXXX大叫,亚欧美日韩香蕉在线播放视频