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      Structural
      發布時間:2019年04月01日     發布人:nanyuzi  
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      Structural

      結構的

       

      A term used in linguistics referring to any approach to the analysis of language that pays explicit attention to the way in which linguistic features can be described in terms of structures and systems (structural or structuralist linguistics). In the general Saussurean sense, structuralist ideas enter into every school of linguistics. Structuralism does, however, have a more restricted definition, referring to the Bloomfieldian emphasis on the processes of segmenting and classifying the physical features of utterance (i.e. on what Noam Chomsky later called surface structures), with little reference to the abstract underlying structures (Chomsky’s deep structures) of language or their meaning.

      The contribution of this notion in linguistics is apparent in the more general concept of structuralism. Here, any human institution or behaviour (e.g. dancing, courtship, religion) is considered analysable in terms of an underlying network of relationships, and the structures demonstrated referrable to basic modes of thought. The crucial point is that the elements which constitute a network have no validity apart from the relations (of equivalence, contrast, etc.) which hold between them, and it is this network of relations which constitutes the structures of the system.

       

      語言學用來指任何一種注重用結構和系統明確描寫語言特征的語言分析方法(結構)或結構主義語言學。一般的索緒爾式的結構主義思想已溶入語言學的每一個學派。但是結構主義還有一個較狹窄的定義,指的是布龍菲爾德式的方法,即強調話段(喬姆斯基后來稱作表層結構的)有形特征的切分和分類程序,不怎么考慮語言抽象的底層機構(喬姆斯基的深層結構)或其意義。

      這一概念對語言學的貢獻明顯地體現在更一般的概念結構主義中。按這一概念,任何人類制度或行為(例如舞蹈、求愛、宗教)都被認為可用一個底層的關系網絡來分析,而證明存在的各種結構都可歸因于一些基本思維方式。其最重要的觀點是,組成一個網絡的各個成分除了它們之間持有的各種關系(等值、對立關系等)外沒有其他存在的理由,而正是這種關系網絡構成系統的各個結構。

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