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      Structure
      發布時間:2019年04月01日     發布人:nanyuzi  
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      Structure

      結構

       

      In its most general sense, and especially as defined by structuralist studies of human institutions and behaviour, the term applies to the main abstract characteristic of a semiotic system. A language, for example, is a structure, in the sense that it is a network of interrelated units, the meaning of the parts being specifiable only with reference to the whole. More specifically, the term is used to refer to an isolatable section of this total network, as in the discussion of the structure of a particular grammatical area.

      However, this application of the term to paradigmatic relationships is not as widespread as the syntagmatic conception of ‘structure’. Here a particular sequential pattern of linguistic elements is referred to as ‘a structure’, definable with reference to one of the various ‘structural levels’ recognized in a theory, e.g. ‘phonological structure’, ‘syntactic structure’, ‘morphological structure’, ‘semantic structure’. The set of items which contrast at a particular ‘place’ in a structure is then referred to as a system. This is the way in which the term is used in Hallidayan linguistics, for example, where it has a special status, as the name of one of the four major categories recognized by the theory: the category of ‘structure’ accounts for the ways in which an occurrence of one syntactic unit can be made up out of occurrences of the unit below it. In this sense, the morpheme has no structure, being the minimal unit in grammar.

       

      按其最一般的涵義,特別是按人類制度和行為的結構主義學說的定義,“結構”是指一個符號系統的主要抽象特征。例如,語言是一個結構,其涵義是語言是互相關聯的單位組成的一個網絡,各部分的意義只有參照整體才能確定。較具體的“結構”是指整個這樣的網絡中可分離的一部分,如討論某一語法領域的結構。

      但是,這種聚合關系涵義上的“結構”使用的廣泛性不僅指組合關系的“結構”;后者是語言成分的某一特定序列型式,可參照相關理論區分的各個“結構平面”之一來定義,例如有“音系結構”、“句法結構”、“形態結構”、“語義結構”等。一個結構內某一“位置”上一組語項的對立于是稱作系統,例如韓禮德式語言學就是這樣使用“系統”一語的,那兒“結構”有特殊的地位,是那種理論分出的四大范疇之一:結構這個范疇說明一個結構單位的現次如何由低一層次的單位現次組成。按這種涵義,語素沒有結構,因為語法是最小的單位。

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      在线精品国产一区二区三区,欧美最猛性XXXXX大叫,亚欧美日韩香蕉在线播放视频