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      Syntax
      發布時間:2019年04月11日     發布人:nanyuzi  
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      Syntax

      句法學

       

      A traditional term for the study of the rules governing the way words are combined to form sentences in a language. In this use, syntax is opposed to morphology, the study of word structure. An alternative definition (avoiding the concept of ‘word’) is the study of the interrelationships between elements of sentence structure, and of the rules governing the arrangement of sentences in sequences. In this use, one might then talk of the ‘syntax of the word’. In initial formulations of generative linguistics, the syntactic component is one of three major organizational units within a grammar, containing rules for the generation of syntactic structures (e.g. phrase-structure rules, transformational rules). The exact nature of the syntactic rules within this component varies from one grammatical theory to another. Syntactic structures (patterns, or constructions) are analysable into sequences of syntactic categories or syntactic classes, these being established on the basis of the syntactic relationships linguistics items have with other items in a construction. Some studies propose an analysis whereby categories are analysed as sets of syntactic features, to permit a greater degree of generalization across categories. The study of the field as a whole is known as syntactic theory. Studying the sequential arrangements of syntax is sometimes referred to as syntactics, but there is a possibility of confusion here with the earlier used of this term as one of the three major divisions of semiotics (along with pragmatics and semantics). The adjective form of ‘syntax” in modern linguistics is syntactic.

       

      這個傳統術語指研究語言中詞組合成句子的規則。這種涵義的句法學與研究詞結構的形態學對立。另一種定義(回避“詞”的概念)是研究句子結構成分之間的相互關系和組成句子序列的規則。生成語言學中,句法部分是語法的三大組成部分之一,包含生成句法結構的各種規則(例如短語結構規則,轉換規則)。這個組成部分內句法規則的確切性質隨不同的語法理論而異。句法結構(型式或構式)可分析為句法范疇或句法類的序列,分析的依據是構式內語項與語項的句法關系。最近的研究將范疇分析為一組句法特征,以使各范疇具有更大程度的概括性。整個句法領域的研究稱作句法理論。研究句法的序列組配有時稱作“句法組配學”,但‘syntactics’一語原先指語形學,是符號學的三大部分之一(與語用學和語義學并列),因此可能引起混淆?,F代語言學中‘syntax’一詞的形容詞是‘syntactic’。

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      在线精品国产一区二区三区,欧美最猛性XXXXX大叫,亚欧美日韩香蕉在线播放视频