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      英語世界
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      Typological Linguistics
      發布時間:2019年04月15日     發布人:nanyuzi  
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      Typological Linguistics

      類型語言學

       

      A branch of linguistics which studies the structural similarities between languages, regardless of their history, as part of an attempt to establish a satisfactory classification, or typology, of languages. Typological comparison is thus distinguished from the historical comparison of languages - the province of comparative philology and historical linguistics - and its groupings may not coincide with those set up by the historical method. For example, in respect of the paucity of inflectional endings, English is closer to Chinese than it is to Latin. One typological classification, proposed by the German linguist Wilhelm von Humboldt (1768-1835) in the early nineteenth century, established three main groups of languages on structural grounds: isolating, agglutinative and fusional; a fourth category, polysynthetic, has sometimes been suggested. The morphological orientation of this approach is, however, only one aspect of typological analysis, which can operate at all linguistic levels (e.g. a phonological typology in terms of consonant / vowel inventories or systems, syllable structure, or suprasegmental patterns - as illustrated in such notions as ‘tone language’ or ‘click language’). When one considers the many possible criteria of typological comparison, it is plain that no simple classification is likely to emerge, and that differences between languages are not clear-cut, but matters of degree.

       

      語言學的一個分支,研究語言之間的結構相似性,不管其歷史如何,總的目的是建立各種語言的合適的分類法或類型學。類型比較因此區別于語言的歷史比較—比較語文學和歷史語言學的任務;類型比較的分類結果也不一定跟用歷史方法作出的分類相一致。例如,從缺乏屈折形態變化這個角度看,英語在類型上更接近于漢語而不是拉丁語。19世紀初德國語言學家W. 馮·洪堡特(1768-1835)提出的一種類型分類,按結構標準將語言分為三大類:孤立語、粘著語、溶合語;有時還增加一類多式綜合語。但是這種分類的形態學取向只是類型分析的一個方面,實際上類型分析可以在語言學的各個方面上進行(例如音系類型學,按輔音/元音總結和系統、音節結構、超音段型式等進行分類,如“聲調語言”、“吸氣音語言”這種名稱所示)。一旦考慮到類型比較可以有多種標準,那就不可能只有一種簡單的分類法,而且語言之間的差異并不是十分明確的,而只是程度有別而已。

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      在线精品国产一区二区三区,欧美最猛性XXXXX大叫,亚欧美日韩香蕉在线播放视频