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      發布時間:2019年04月17日     發布人:nanyuzi  
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      Template

      模板

       

      (1) A term used in metrical phonology for an abstract tree structure which defined the basic structural possibilities of syllables in a language. For example, an influential formulation of English syllable structure involves a hierarchical analysis into an onset + nucleus +coda, with the latter two elements being grouped as a rhyme, and each element consisting of two segments.

      (2) The term also has a central status in prosodic morphology, where it refers to a fixed phonological shape imposed on varying segmental material. Templates are defined in the grammar and realized in the derivation in terms of the units in the prosodic hierarchy: mora, syllable, foot and prosodic word. The templatic target may be imposed on any morphological base (e.g. stem, word, affix). The template satisfaction condition states that the satisfaction of templatic constraints is obligatory and is determined by prosodic principles. This approach contrasts with segmentalist theories of template form.

      (3) A general sense of the term (‘a pattern established as a norm against which other patterns can be measured’) also has a number of applications in specific linguistic or phonetic contexts. For example, in cognitive grammar, connections between established patterns of neurological activity serve as templates for categorizing expressions. In automatic speech recognition, templates are the stored, labelled spectra (or the key features of spectra) against which an analysis of the signal to be recognized is matched (template matching).

       

      (1)節律音系學術語,指一種語言中用來確定音節的基本結構可能范圍的一個抽象的樹結構。例如,對英語音節結構的一種有影響的闡述方式是作層級分析,即分析為節首+節核(韻腹)+節尾(韻尾),后兩個成分合在一起構成韻基,每個成分由兩個音段組成。

      (2)韻律形態學的一個重要術語,指如在可變音段材料之上的一個固定的音韻形狀。模板在語法中定義,在派生過程中實現為韻律層級中的各種單位:莫拉、音節、音步、韻律詞。目標模板可加在任何一個形態基礎(例如詞干、詞、詞綴)上。模板滿足條件規定,模板制約條件的滿足是強制性的,并且由一些韻律原則決定。這種理論與以模板形式的音段為主的理論相對立。

      3)這一術語的一般涵義(“定為標準的一個型式,其他型式參照這個標準來衡量”)在語言學和語音學的一些特定領域有多種應用。例如,認知語法中,神經活動既定型式之間的聯系可作為詞語劃分范疇的模板。在自動言語識別中,模板是存儲的加標簽的頻譜(或頻譜的關鍵特征),對有待識別的信號的某種分析可與這個模板相匹配(模板匹配(template matching))。

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      在线精品国产一区二区三区,欧美最猛性XXXXX大叫,亚欧美日韩香蕉在线播放视频