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      發布時間:2019年04月18日     發布人:nanyuzi  
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      [發音]目標

      目標語

      目標項

       

      (1) A term used in phonetics and psycholinguistics to refer to a hypothetical articulatory state used as a reference point when describing speech production in dynamic terms. In connected speech, the target articulatory features for a sound (e.g. alveolar, voicing) may not be fully attained, because of the anticipatory influence of successive target articulations. The target model postulates an idealized set of articulatory positions and a set of rules which attempt to predict actual patterns of articulatory movement, taking into account such factors as speed of articulation, and the direction and distance between articulators. Similarly, models of speech perception have been proposed which use the construct of an auditory target, which enables the listener to identify the common factors in different accents, voice qualities, etc.

      (2) The language (or variety, etc.) which is the focus of a linguistic process of change is known as the target language, e.g. the language into which one is translating or interpreting, the language (or variety, etc.) being taught to foreign learners, and so on.

      (3) In transformational grammar, the constituent affected by a transformation is sometimes referred to as the target. For example, the target for WH-movement can be a noun phrase, as in How many parcels will be send to London?, a prepositional phrase, as in In which book did you read about it?, or certain other kind of phrase. A similar use is found in generative phonology, where a rule can be triggered by one segment (the ‘trigger segment’) so as to apply to another ( the ‘target segment’).

       

      (1)語音學和心理語言學用來指一個假設的發音狀態,可在言語產生的動態描寫中作為參照點。在連續言語中,一個音的目標發音特征(例如齒齦音、帶聲)不一定完全實現,因為相繼目標發音動作會產生預先的影響。目標模型設定一組理想化的發音位置和一組規則,后者參考發音速度、發音器之間的方向和距離來預測發音動作的實際型式。同樣,已經建立的一些言語直覺的模型也采用聽覺目標這一理論構建物,它能使聽者從不同的口音、嗓音音質等等之中識別一些共同因素。

      (2)作為一種語言變化過程的終結的語言(或語言變體等)稱作目標語,例如筆譯或口譯成的語言,向外國人教授的語言(或語言變體等)。

      (3)轉換語法中受一種轉換影響的組構成分有時稱作目標項。例如WH-移位的目標項可以是一個名詞短語(如How many parcels will he send to London? “他將往倫敦寄多少個包裹?”),一個介詞短語(如In which book did you read about it? “你在哪本書中讀到的?”),或某些其他短語。類似的用法見于生成音系學,一條規則可由一個音段(“觸發音段”)引發而應用于另一個音段(“目標音段”)。

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      在线精品国产一区二区三区,欧美最猛性XXXXX大叫,亚欧美日韩香蕉在线播放视频