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      Valency
      發布時間:2019年04月19日     發布人:nanyuzi  
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      Valency

      配價[權限]

       

      A term introduced by the French linguist Lucien Tenière (1893-1954), which has been particularly influential in the development of models of dependency grammar in Europe and Russia. The term is derived from chemistry and is used in linguistics to refer to the number and type of bonds which syntactic elements may form with each other; this ‘combining capacity’ is also known as adicity or arity. As in chemistry, a given element may have different valencies in different contexts. A valency grammar presents a model of a sentence containing a fundamental element (typically, the verb) and a number of dependent elements (variously referred to as arguments, expressions, complements or valents) whose number and type is determined by the valency attributed to the verb. For example, the valency of vanish includes only the subject element (it has valency of 1, monovalent, or monadic), whereas that of scrutinize includes both subject and direct object (a valency of 2, bivalent, or dyadic). Verbs which take more than two complements are polyvalent, or polyadic. A verb which takes no complements at all (such as rain) is said to have zero valency (be avalent). Valency deals not only with the number of valents with which a verb is combined to produce a well-formed sentence nucleus, but also with the classification of sets of valents which may be combined with different verbs. For example, give and put usually have a valency of 3 (trivalent), but the valents governed by the former (subject, direct object, and indirect object) are different from those governed by the latter (subject, direct object, and locative adverbial). Verbs which differ in this way are said to be associated with different valency sets. The notion is similar to that used in case grammar, where cases are sometimes referred to as valency roles.

       

      法國語言學家盧西恩·特思尼耶爾(1893—1954)提出的術語,對以后歐洲和俄國各種依存語法模型的建立有特別重要的影響。術語來自化學,語言學用來指句法成分相互之間可形成的各種聯系的數目和類型。跟化學一樣,一個給定元素(成分)在不同的環境中可有不同的配價。配價語法提供一個句子的模型,其中包含一個基本成分(一般是動詞)和若干依附成分(有主目、語詞、補語、價等多種名稱),依附成分的數目和類型由動詞固有的配價權限決定。例如,vanish“消失”一詞只帶一個主語成分(即為一價或單價動詞),而scrutinize“細看”帶兩個成分,一個主語和一個直接賓語(即為二價或雙價動詞)。不帶任何補語的動詞(例如rain“下雨”)稱作零價或缺價動詞。配價權限不僅處理合式句子中核心動詞的價數,還可以處理可與不同動詞組合的價的分類。例如,give“給”和put“放”一般都是三價動詞,但give支配的價(主語,直接賓語,間接賓語)不同于put支配的價(主語,直接賓語,處所狀語)。動詞在這方面的區別稱作有不同的配價集。配價的概念與格語法中格的概念相似,格有時也稱作配價角色。

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      在线精品国产一区二区三区,欧美最猛性XXXXX大叫,亚欧美日韩香蕉在线播放视频