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      發布時間:2019年04月19日     發布人:nanyuzi  
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      篇章、語篇

       

      A pre-theoretical term used in linguistics and phonetics to refer to a stretch of language recorded for the purpose of analysis and description. What is important to note is that texts may refer to collections of written or spoken material (the latter having been transcribed in some way), e.g. conversation, monologues, rituals, and so on. The term textual meaning is sometimes used in semantics as part of a classification of types of meaning, referring to those factors affecting the interpretation of a sentence which derive from the rest of the text in which the sentence occurs – as when, at a particular point in a play or novel, a sentence or word appears whose significance can only be appreciated in the light of what has gone before.

      The study of texts has become a defining feature of a branch of linguistics referred to (especially in Europe) as textlinguistics, and ‘text’ here has central theoretical status. Texts are seen as language units which have a definable communicative function, characterized by such principles as cohesion, coherence and informativeness, which can be used to provide a formal definition of what constitutes their identifying textuality or texture. On the basis of these principles, texts are classified into text types, or genres, such as road signs, news reports, poems, conversations, etc.

       

      語言學和語音學的一個前理論術語,指為分析和描寫目的而記錄下來的一段語言。需著重指出的是,篇章不僅指結集的書面材料也指口說材料(后者經某種轉寫),例如會話、獨白、儀式講話等等。語義學有時用篇章意義指分出的一類意義,即影響一個句子理解的那些來自句子所在篇章其他部分的因素;例如一個劇本或一部小說的某一處出現的一個句子或詞,其意義只有參照前文才能理解。

      近年來篇章研究已成為稱作篇章語言學(特別在歐洲)的語言學分支的定義特征,“篇章”在其中有重要的理論地位。篇章被視為一類語言單位,有其可定義的信遞功能,受連貫、銜接、信息度這類原則的支配,這些特點可用來從形式上定義起鑒別作用的篇章性的組構成分。根據這些原則,篇章可分為各種類型,如路標、新聞報道、詩歌、對話等。

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