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      Universal
      發布時間:2019年04月23日     發布人:nanyuzi  
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      Universal

      普世的,共相

       

      A term used in linguistics, and especially in generative grammar, referring to a property claimed to be common for all languages, to demonstrate the validity of which is a main goal of linguistic theory. Universal grammar is the term used to identify the main aim of those who hold that the ultimate purpose of linguistics is to specify precisely the possible form of a human grammar – and especially the restrictions on the form such grammars can take. In their broadest sense, then, language universals are equivalent to the general design features of human language identified by some linguists under such headings as duality, creativity, reflexiveness and displacement. In this sense, universals provide a theory of the human language faculty - which is thought to be an important step in the task of understanding human intellectual capacities.

      In early generative literature, two main types of universal are recognized. Formal universals are the necessary conditions which have to be imposed on the construction of grammars in order for them to be able to operate. They include such notions as the number of components, types of rules, ordering conventions (e.g. cycles), types of transformations and so on. Substantive universals, on the other hand, are the primitive elements in a grammar, required for the analysis of linguistic data, e.g. NP, VP, [+ grave], [+abstract]. Depending on the component of the grammar in which they occur, universals are referred to as ‘phonological universals’, ‘semantic universals’ (cf. ‘universal semantics’), ‘syntactic universals’, etc. Some of these categories may actually be found in every language, but it is not crucial to the notion of substantive universal that they should be. All that is required is that they be constructs which need to be defined by linguistic theory to enable cross-language generalizations to be made, i.e. they are not terms established for the analysis of just one language, but are capable of general application. The universal base hypothesis in generative linguistics states that all languages can be generated by using the same set of basic rules - thought whether these are seen as rules of the base syntactic component or as a set of semantic formation rules depends on the theory employed.

      Other types of linguistic universal have been suggested. Quantitative studies have introduced the notion of statistical universals, i.e. constants of a statistical kind, such as a ratio of use between different structures. Implicational universals are generalized statements of the form ‘if X, the Y’, e.g. if a language has a word-order of a certain type, it will also have a verb structure of a certain type. Absolute universals are properties which all languages share; there are no exceptions. Relative universals are general tendencies in language; there may be principled exceptions.

       

      語言學,特別是生成語法,用來指據稱是所有語言所共有的特征,而證明這種共相的有效性正是語言學理論的主要目標。有人認為語言學的最終目標是精確說明人類語法的可能形式,特別是說明這類語法形式上的限制,這樣的語法可用普世語法稱之。因此在最寬泛的涵義上,語言共相相當于人類語言的設計特征,有的語言學家認為這些特征包括雙層性、創造性、自反性和移置性等。從這一意義上講,共相提供關于人類語言本能的理論,即揭示生物學上必需的那些語言特征;揭示共相被認為是理解人類智能這項任務的重要一步。

      生成語法文獻中區分兩大類共相,即形式共相和實體共相。形式共相是為了使各種語法能夠運作而必須施加于語法結構上的條件。這些條件包括語法組成部分的數目,規則的各種類型,序次規約(例如循環),轉換的各種類型,等等概念。實體共相則是一步語法的基元成分,是分析語言數據所必需的,例如NP,VP,[+鈍音],[+抽象]等。按其出現的語法組成部分,共相可分別稱作“音系共相”,“語義共相”,“句法共相”等。這些范疇中有一些可能實際見于一種語言,但對實體共相而言這一點并不十分重要。需要滿足的條件只是,他們是為作出跨語言的概括而需要由語言理論加以定義的概念,換言之,它們不是只為分析一種語言而建立的概念,而是有一般的適用性。生成語言學中的普世基礎假說是指,所有語言都可以用同一套基本規則生成—但這些規則是視作基礎句法部分的規則還是語義構成規則,這要取決于采納哪一種理論。

      已經提出的語言共相還有其他種類。數量研究提出統計共相的概念,即統計上的不變項,如不同結構的使用比率。蘊涵共相是形式為“如果X,那么Y”的概括性陳述,例如,如果一種語言的詞序為某一類型,那么這種語言也有某一類型的動詞結構。絕對共相是所有語言都具備的特性,沒有例外。相對共相是語言的一般傾向,可能存在有其他規律支配的例外。

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      在线精品国产一区二区三区,欧美最猛性XXXXX大叫,亚欧美日韩香蕉在线播放视频