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      Tongue
      發布時間:2019年04月29日     發布人:nanyuzi  
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      Tongue

       

      (1) From the phonetic point of view, the importance of the tongue is that it is the organ of articulation most involved in the production of speech sounds - all the vowels and the majority of the consonants (that is, excluding those made at the lips and in the throat). Different parts of the tongue are involved in articulating these sounds, and it has proved convenient to classify sounds with reference to these areas. From front to back, it is usual to distinguish the tip (or apex), blade (or front), centre (or ‘top’), back (or dorsum) and root. The groove running down the centre of the tongue is also significant, in that several sound contrasts can be made by altering its shape. Plotting tongue movements is difficult visually or kinaesthetically, but advances in phonetic instrumentation, such as the electropalatograph, have enabled many of these movements to be displayed with accuracy.

      (2) In Chomsky and Halle’s distinctive feature theory of phonology, tongue-body features constitute one of the categories set up to handle variations in place of articulation (cavity features). The placement of the body of the tongue is characterized with reference to three features, all seen as oppositions: high, low and back.

       

      (1)從語音學觀點看,舌的重要性在于它是語音產生時使用得最多的發音器官—所有的元音和大多數輔音都靠舌發音(只有用唇或喉發的音除外)。舌的不同部位都用于這些音的發音,實際也證明按這些部位給語音分類較為方便。從前至后,通常區分舌尖、舌葉(或舌前)、舌央(或“舌頂”)、舌后(或舌背)、舌根。沿舌中央的舌溝也起作用,有好幾個語音靠改變其形狀來區別。舌的動作很難從視覺或動覺上記錄下來,但近來語音實驗儀器的發展,如電子腭位觀察儀的誕生,已使精確顯示許多舌的動作成為可能。

      (2)在喬姆斯基和哈勒的音系學的區別特征理論中,舌體特征是為描寫發音部位的變化而建立的范疇之一(腔特征)。舌的位置是參照三個特征來確定,這三個特征—高、低、后—都被視為對立特征。

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