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      Tone
      發布時間:2019年05月06日     發布人:nanyuzi  
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      Tone

      1)聲調;音調

      2)單音

       

      (1) A term used in phonology to refer to the distinctive pitch level of a syllable. In the study of intonation, a sequence of tones constitutes a contour or tone unit. In Hallidayan analysis, the division of an utterance into tone groups is called tonality. The most prominent tone in a tone unit may be referred to as a nuclear tone. In many languages, the tone carried by a word is an essential feature of the meaning of that word (lexical tone), e.g. in Beijing Mandarin Chinese the word ma when pronounced in a level tone means ‘mother’, and in a falling-rising tone means ‘horse’ - two out of four possible tone contrasts in that language. Such languages, where word meanings or grammatical categories are dependent on pitch level, are known as tone languages. The unit which carries the tone (e.g. syllable, mora) is called the tone-bearing unit. Many languages of South-East Asia and Africa are tone languages, illustrating several types of tonal organization. In such languages, sequences of adjacent tones may influence each other phonetically or phonologically, e.g. a word which in isolation would have a low tone may be given higher tone if a high-tone word follows: such a phenomenon is sometimes called tone (or tonal ) sandhi. The organization of tonal structure within a non-linear phonological model (the nature of tonal features and the location of tonal linkage) is sometimes called tonal geometry.

      The study of the phonetics properties of tone, in its most general sense, is sometimes referred to as tonetics. In the emic tradition of study, contrastive tones are classified as tonemes, and the study of such tones is known as tonemics. Features of tone, such as ‘high’, ‘low’ and ‘mid’, are proposed by distinctive feature theories of phonology. Tones which vary in pitch range are often called ‘contour’, ‘kinetic’ or ‘dynamic’ tones; those who do not vary in range are ‘static’ or ‘level’ tones.

      (2) In acoustic phonetics, a sound with sufficient regularity of vibration to provide a sensation of pitch. Sounds which lack this regularity are characterized as noise. A pure tone is produced by a waveform whose pattern of vibration repeats itself at a constant rate; such tones are typically produced by electronic sources or tuning forks. When two or more tones of different frequencies combine, the result is a complex tone. Most sounds, including those of speech, involve complex tones, with different periodic patterns.

       

      (1)音系學用“音調”來指一個音節的區別性音高。在研究語調時,一個音調序列構成一個曲拱或語調單位。在韓禮德式分析中,一個話段能切分成若干調群稱作調性。一個音調單位中最突顯的音調可稱作核心調。許多語言中,詞負載的音調即聲調是區別詞的意義的一個基本特征(詞匯調),例如漢語北京話的ma發平調是“媽”,降升調是“馬”—這種語言四個對立聲調中的兩個。這類語言,即詞義或語法范疇依賴于音高的,稱作聲調語言。負載聲調的單位(例如音節、莫拉)稱作載調單位。東南亞和非洲的許多語言都是聲調語言,聲調的組織有好幾種類型。在這類語言中,鄰接的聲調會在語音和音系上互相影響,例如,一個詞單獨時為低調,但后面如接一個高調詞就可能變為較高的調:這種現象有時稱作連續變調。非線性音系學模型中聲調結構的組織(聲調特征的性質和聲調連系的位置)有時稱作聲調構架。

      對聲調語音特征的研究,從最寬泛的涵義上講,可稱作聲調學。按照位的研究傳統,對立的聲調可作調位分類,對調位的研究稱作調位學。音系學的區別特征理論將聲調特征分為“高”、“低”、“中”等。音高范圍有變化的聲調常稱作“曲拱”調,“動勢”調或“動態”調;音高不發生變化的聲調是“靜止”調或“平”調。

      (2)聲學語音學中,指振動有足夠的規律性、給人以一種音高感覺的音。缺乏這種規律性的音稱作噪音。單音產生純音的波形,其振動型式以固定的速率自行重復;這種音一般由電聲源或音叉產生。兩個或多個不同頻率的單音結合而成復音。大多數音,包括言語的音,都是復音,包含不同的周期波。

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      在线精品国产一区二区三区,欧美最猛性XXXXX大叫,亚欧美日韩香蕉在线播放视频