(1) A category used in the grammatical description of verbs (along with aspect and mood), referring primarily to the way the grammar marks the time at which the action denoted by the verb took place. Traditionally, a distinction is made between past, present and future tenses, often with further divisions (perfect, pluperfect, etc.). In linguistics, the relationship between tense and time has been the subject of much study, and it is now plain that there is no easily stateable relationship between the two. Tense forms (i.e. variations in the morphological form of the verb) can be used to signal meanings other than temporal ones. In English, for example, the past-tense form (e.g. I knew) may signal a tentative meaning, and not past time, in some contexts (e.g. I wish I knew – that is, ‘know now’). Nor is there a simple one-to-one relationship between tense forms and time: the present tense in English may help to refer to future or past time, depending on context.
(2) See Tension.
（1）對動詞作語法描寫的一個范疇（與體和語氣一起），主要用來指動詞表示的動作發生時間的語法標記。傳統上“時”分為過去時、現在時、將來時，還常作其他區分（完成時，過去完成時等）。時與時間的關系一直是語言學著重研究的一個問題，但這種關系顯然很難簡單說清楚。時形式（即動詞的形態變化形式）可用來表示時間以外的其他意義。例如英語的過去時形式（如I knew“我知道”）在某些語境里可表示臨時的意思（如I wish I knew“但愿我知道”—即“現在知道”）。時形式與時間之間也不是一對一的關系：英語的現在時可用來指將來或過去，視語境而定。