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      System
      發布時間:2019年05月22日     發布人:nanyuzi  
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      System

      系統

       

      In its most general sense, the term refers to a network of patterned relationships constituting the organization of language. Language as a whole is then characterized as a system (cf. the ‘linguistic system of English’, etc.) - and often as a hierarchically ordered arrangement of systems. In one view, the ‘language system’ is constituted by the phonological, grammatical and semantic systems; the phonological system comprises the segmental and suprasegmental systems; the segmental system comprises the vowel and consonant systems; and so on.

      Within this totality, the term ‘system’ may be applied to any finite set of formally or semantically connected units, where the interrelationships are mutually exclusive (i.e. two members of the same system cannot co-occur) and mutually defining (i.e. the meaning of one member is specifiable only with reference to others). Other ‘grammatical systems’ would include determiner / tense / mood / prepositional / negation, etc. The term would not normally be applied to open-class items, such as nouns, adjectives, sentences, etc., unless it meant the set of formal grammatical relationships subsumed under that heading, e.g. the ‘noun system’ would mean the set of syntagmatic and paradigmatic relationships which define the class of nouns.

      In Hallidayan linguistics, the notion of system receives a special status. In scale-and-category grammar, it is one of the four central categories recognized by the theory (the others being unit, structure and class): ‘systems’ are finite sets of paradigmatically related items functioning in classes. In the later development of this approach, systemic grammar, the notion of system is made a central explanatory principle, the whole of language being conceived as a ‘system of systems’. Systemic grammar is concerned to establish a network of systems of relationships, in the above sense, which will account for all the semantically relevant choices in the language as a whole.

      The adjective systematic is often used in linguistics in its everyday sense, but in certain contexts (usually in relation to phonetics and phonology) it receives a restricted definition. In generative grammar, it has been used to refer to two levels of representation in the phonological component of the grammar: systematic phonemic and systematic phonetic levels are distinguished, the implication being that the terms of these analyses are being seen as in systemic correspondence with other aspects of the grammar (e.g. the morphological relationships between items).

       

      這個術語最一般的涵義是指語言組織的型式關系網絡。因此語言作為一個整體就是一個系統,經常也是一個由分系統組成的層級系統。按一種觀點,“語言系統”由音韻系統、語法系統、語義系統組成;音韻系統又由音段系統和超音段系統組成;音段系統又由原因系統和輔音系統組成,等等。

      在這個總體框架內,“系統”又可用來指任何一組數目有限的、有形式和語義聯系的單位。單位之間既是互相排斥的(即同一系統的兩個成員不能共現)又是相互定義的(即一個成員的意義只有參照其他成員才能確定)。其他“語法系統”包括限定詞、時、式、介詞、否定等系統?!跋到y”一般不用來指開放類,如名詞、形容詞、句子等,除非是指這些名目下的一組語法形式關系,例如“名詞系統”是指定義名詞這個類的一組組合和聚合關系。

      在韓禮德式語言學中,系統的概念有其特殊的地位。在階與范疇語法中,“系統”是這種理論分出的四大中心范疇之一(其他三個是單位、結構、類):“系統”是以類起作用的一組數目有限定、有聚合關系的語項。這種理論的后期發展即系統語法中,系統的概念成為一條重要的解釋性原則,整個語言被視為一個“系統的系統”。系統語法旨在建立一個與上述涵義上的各關系系統的網絡,能用來解釋整個語言中全部相關的語義選擇。

      形容詞systematic(系統的)在語言學中常按日常涵義使用,但在某些場合(一般與語音學和音系學相關)其定義較狹窄。如在生成語法中,它指語法的音系部分區分的兩個表征層面,即系統音位層和系統語音層,其含義是這兩個分析層面與語法其他層面(例如語項間的形態關系)有系統的對應關系。

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      在线精品国产一区二区三区,欧美最猛性XXXXX大叫,亚欧美日韩香蕉在线播放视频