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      Systematic Phonemics
      發布時間:2019年05月23日     發布人:nanyuzi  
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      Systematic Phonemics

      系統音位學

       

      A level of representation in generative phonology which sets up a single underlying form capable of accounting for the phonological variations which relate grammatical structures (e.g. words). In such pairs of words as divine ~ divinity, obscene ~ obscenity, there is plainly a regular relationship of some kind, but it is not an easy relationship to state explicitly. Chonsky and Halle, in their approach to this problem, argue that the root morpheme in each pair of words can be given a single underlying representation, and that this, along with the rules which relate such representations to the surface alternants, accounts for the native-speaker’s awareness of the ‘systematic’ relationship which exist between grammar and phonology. (Such rules also often reflect sound changes which have taken place in the history of the language.) The units in these representations are referred to as systematic phonemes, as opposed to the ‘autonomous’ phonemes of traditional phonemic phonology, which are established without reference to grammatical structure. Some generative phonologists (such as Chomsky and Halle) prefer the term ‘phonological’ to refer to this level representation, because of the undesirable associations of the term ‘phonemic’ with traditional phonemic theory.

       

      生成音系學的一個表征層面,這個層面建立單一的底層形式,能用來說明與各種語法結構(例如詞)相關的音系變化。例如在divine“神的”~divinity“神性”,obsene“猥褻的”~obsenity“猥褻”這樣成對的詞中,顯然存在某種有規律的關聯,但又很難明確說明這種關聯。喬姆斯基和哈勒在解決這個問題時認為,每對詞中的根語素可指派單一的底層表征式,這個表征式和將其與表層交替形式相聯系的規則一起,能對操本族語者對存在于語法和音系學之間的“系統”關聯的語感做出說明。(這類規則經常也反應語言歷史上發生的語音演變。)這些表征式的單位稱作系統音位,以區別于傳統音位音系學的“自主”音位,后者的確定無需參照語法結構。有的生成音系學家(如喬姆斯基和哈勒)喜歡用“音系的”指這個表征層,因為“音位的”一詞使人聯想到不可取的傳統音位理論。

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