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      Syllable
      發布時間:2019年06月05日     發布人:nanyuzi  
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      Syllable

      音節

       

      A unit of pronunciation typically larger than a single sound and smaller than a word. A word may be pronounced ‘syllable at a time’, and a good dictionary will indicate where these syllabic divisions occur in writing, thus providing information about how a word may be hyphenated. The notion of syllable, in short, is very real to native-speakers, and is often used in a quasi-technical sense in everyday conversation. Syllabification is the term which refers to the division of a word into syllables; resyllabification refers to a reanalysis which alters the location of syllable boundaries. A word containing a single syllable is called a monosyllable; if it contains more than one, the term polysyllable is used (or monosyllabic word / polysyllabic word respectively).

      Phonological views of the syllable focus on the ways sounds combine in individual languages to produce typical sequences. Here two classes of sounds are usually established: sounds which can occur on their own, or at the centre of a sequence of sounds, and sounds which cannot occur on their own, or which occur at the edges of a sequence of sounds. The former include such sounds as [i],[a],[u], etc., and are generally referred to as vowels; the latter include such sounds as [p],[g],[f],[t?],etc., and are generally referred to as consonants. A consonant-vowel (CV) sequence is a pattern which seems to be found in all languages: because the syllable is not ‘closed’ by another consonant, this type of syllable is often called an open syllable type. A CVC pattern is also very common in English. In such a case, the following terminology is widely used:

      the opening segment of a syllable = the onset,

      the closing segment of the syllable = the coda,

      the central segment of the syllable = the centre or nucleus.

      A useful collective term for the opening and closing segments is the margins (or edges) of the syllable. In metrical phonology, the nucleus and coda are viewed as a single constituent of syllable structure, called the rhyme (or rime), and syllables are distinguished phonologically in terms of their weight.

      In the distinctive feature theory of phonology proposed by Chomsky and Halle, syllabic is used to replace the earlier term ‘vocalic’, referring to all segments constituting a syllabic nucleus. Vowels, liquids and nasals would be [+syllabic] ([+syll]); all other segments would be [-syll].

       

      指一個發音單位,通常大于單一的音而小于一個詞。詞的發音可以“一個音節一頓”,一部好詞典會標明書寫時發生的這種音節區分,從而提供有關詞內何處可加連字符的信息。簡而言之,音節的概念對操本族語者來說是很實在的,并常以準專業術語用于日常會話。音節劃分指一個詞劃分成若干音節,音節重新劃分指改變音節界限的重新分析。只含一個音節的詞稱作單音節,如含的音節不止一個就稱作多音節(或分別稱作“單音節詞”和“多音節詞”)。

      音系學對音節的觀點是集中于個別語言中語音如何結合起來產生典型的序列。按這種觀點,語音通常分為兩類,一類音能獨立出現,或位于語音序列的中心;另一類音不能獨立出現,或位于語音序列的邊緣。前者包括[i],[a],[u]等,一般稱作元音;后者包括[p],[g],[f],[t?]]這類音,一般稱作輔音。輔音-元音(CV)序列看來是所有語言都有的一種型式:因為這個序列沒有另一個輔音來“關閉”它,這類音節常稱作開音節。CVC型式在英語中也很常見,這種型式一般采用以下一些術語:

      音節的起首音段=節首

      音節的節尾音段=節尾

      音節的中央音段=節心或節核(韻腹)

      一個有用的術語是音節的邊界音(或邊緣),統指起首音段和結尾音段。在節律音系學中,韻腹加韻尾被視作音節結構的一個組構成分,稱作韻基;音系學還按音重來區分音節。

      在喬姆斯基和哈勒提出的區別特征理論中,成音節取代早先的“元音性”,指所有構成一個節核的音段。元音、邊音和鼻音為[+成音節]([+syll]),其他音段都為[-成音節]。

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      在线精品国产一区二区三区,欧美最猛性XXXXX大叫,亚欧美日韩香蕉在线播放视频