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      Stress
      發布時間:2019年06月26日     發布人:nanyuzi  
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      Stress

      重音


      A term used in phonetics to refer to the degree of force used in producing a syllable. The usual distinction is between stressed and unstressed syllables, the former being more prominent than the latter (and marked in transcription with a raised vertical line, [‘].) The prominence is usually due to an increase in loudness of the stressed syllable, but increases in length and often pitch may contribute to the overall impression of prominence. From the viewpoint of phonology, the main function of stress is to provide a means of distinguishing degrees of emphasis or contrast in sentences (sentence stress). In the American structuralist tradition, four such degrees are usually distinguished, and analysed as stress phonemes, namely (from strongest to weakest) (1) ‘primary’, (2)’secondary’, (3)’tertiary’, and (4)’weak’. These contrasts are, however, demonstrable only on words in isolation. Alternative views recognized different kinds and degrees of stress, the simplest postulating a straight stressed v. unstressed contrast. In distinctive feature theories of phonology, the various degrees of stress are assigned to the syllables of words by means of the repeated application of rules (such as ‘lexical’, ‘compound’ and ‘nuclear’ stress rules). Some analysts maintain there is a distinction to be made between linguistic contrast involving loudness and those additionally involving pitch.


      語音學用來指用力發出一個音節。通常區分重讀和非重讀音節,前者比后者突顯(記音時在上角加短豎線標記[‘])。這種突顯一般歸因于重讀音節響度的增加,音長和音高的增加也會造成突顯的總體印象。從音系學的觀點看,重音的主要功能是為句子內的強調和對比提供一種區別程度的手段(句重音)。按美國結構主義的傳統,重音通常分為四度,并分析為重音音位,即(從最強到最弱):(1)主重音,(2)次重音,(3)再次重音,(4)弱重音。但這種區分只適用于表示孤立的詞。其他觀點區分不同種類和不同程度的重音,最簡單的一種觀點只假設重讀和非重讀的對立。音系學的區別特征理論通過規則的重復應用(如“詞匯”、“復合詞”、“核心”重音等規則)給詞內音節指派各種程度的重音。有的分析者堅持只區分涉及響度的語言學對立和另外涉及音高的對立。

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      在线精品国产一区二区三区,欧美最猛性XXXXX大叫,亚欧美日韩香蕉在线播放视频