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      Theme
      發布時間:2019年06月28日     發布人:nanyuzi  
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      Theme

      主題,主位;題元


      A term used in linguistics as part of an analysis of the structure of sentences (their thematic structure): it refers, not to the subject-matter of a sentence (its everyday meaning), but to the way speakers identify the relative importance of their subject-matter, and is defined as the first major constituent of a sentence (seen here as a string of constituents). There is no necessary correspondence with a functional grammatical element (though in English theme and subject often coincide) e.g. The man is going. The process of moving an element to the front of the sentence in this way (‘fronting’), to act as theme, is known as thematization (sometimes topicalization) or thematic fronting. Some linguists systematically distinguish this notion from other ways of analysing the organization of the sentence structure of messages, such as the topic / comment distinction, or an analysis in terms of information structure.

      In the Prague School approach to linguistics, theme is opposed to rheme, producing a distinction similar to that of topic / comment, but interpreted with reference to the theoretical framework of functional sentence perspective. In this theory, the theme is defined as the part of a sentence which adds least to the advancing process of communication (it has the lowest degree of communicative dynamism); in other words, it expresses relatively little (or no) extra meaning, in addition to what has already been communicated. The rheme, by contrast, carries the highest degree of communicative dynamism. Various transitional expressions, neither ‘thematic’ nor ‘rhematic’, are also recognized.


      語言學用來分析句子結構(句子的主述結構)的術語;“主題”不是指句子的主要內容(“主題”一詞的日常意義),而是指說話人如何表明主要內容的相對重要性,可定義為句子的第一個主要組構成分(句子被視為若干組構成分構成的語符列)。主題與語法功能成分之間不一定有對應關系(雖然英語的主題常與主語重合),例如The man is coming.“那個人就來”。將一個成分移到句首(“前置”)充當主題稱作主題化(有時也叫話題化)或主題前置。有的語言學家將這種分析與句子內容結構的其他分析法系統地區別開來,后者如分析為話題/評述,或從信息結構出發的分析。

      近年來語言學的布拉格學派用“主位”對立于述位,類似于話題/評述的對立,但需參照功能句法觀的理論框架來理解。按這種理論,主位定義為句子中對推進信遞過程貢獻最小的那個部分(即信遞動力作用最?。?;換言之,主位除表達已經傳遞的意義外幾乎不(或完全不)表達新的意義。相反,述位所起的信遞動力作用最大?!爸魑弧焙汀笆鑫弧敝g有各種不同的過渡性詞語。

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      在线精品国产一区二区三区,欧美最猛性XXXXX大叫,亚欧美日韩香蕉在线播放视频