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      發布時間:2019年07月01日     發布人:nanyuzi  
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      轉寫[],記音[]

       

      A method of writing down speech sounds in a systematic and consistent way - also known as a ‘notation’ or ‘script’. Two main kinds of transcription are recognized: phonetic and phonemic. Square brackets enclose phonetic transcription; oblique lines enclose phonemic transcription. In the former, sounds are symbolized on the basis of their articulatory / auditory identity, regardless of their function in a language (sometimes called an impressionistic transcription). In the latter, the only units to be symbolized are those which have a linguistic function, i.e. the phonemes. An allophonic transcription adds functional phonetic details. A phonemic transcription looks simplest of all, as in this only the units which account for differences of meaning will be represented. In a phonetic transcription, on the other hand, the aim is not to judge the functional significance of sounds, in the context of some language, but to identify the sounds as such.

      Phonetic transcriptions which are relatively detailed are called narrow transcriptions; those which are less detailed are called broad transcriptions. In the broadest possible transcription, only those phonetic segments would be notated which correspond to the functionally important units in the language - in other words, it would be equivalent to a phonemic transcription, and some phoneticians do use ‘broad’ in the sense of ‘phonemic’. But in principle it is important to appreciate that the two transcriptions of [pen] and /pen/ refer to very different entities: the first is a broad phonetic transcription, representing a sequence of concrete, physical articulations; the second is a phonemic transcription, representing a sequence of abstract, functional units, and reflecting a particular theoretical point of view.

      In any transcription (whether phonetic or phonemic), each distinguishable sound is given its own ‘symbol’. The whole range of available phonetic symbols is known as a ‘phonetic alphabet’. The most widely used such alphabet is the international phonetic alphabet.

       

      以系統的、前后一致的方式記錄語音的方法,也稱作“標記法”或“書寫法”。主要有兩種轉寫法:語音的和音位的。方括號內是語音轉寫;雙斜杠內是音位轉寫。前者的轉寫是根據語音的發音/聽覺特點,不管其在語言中的功能(有時稱作印象轉寫法)。后者只轉寫那些有語言功能的單位,即音位。音位變體轉寫法再增加一些功能上的語音細節。音位轉寫看上去最簡單,因為只表示出能說明意義差別的單位,而語音轉寫的目的不是要判斷語音在某種語言中的功能意義,而是要識別語音本身。語音轉寫法較細致的一種稱作窄式記音法,不太細致的一種稱作寬式記音法。最寬式的記音只記錄那些對應于語言中有功能意義的單位的語音音段,換言之,與音位轉寫對等,而有的語音學家確實用“寬式”指“音位”記音。但是原則上必須理解[pen]和/pen/兩種記音記的是不同的實體:前者是寬式語音轉寫,表示一個具體的、物理的發音動作序列;后者是音位轉寫,表示一個抽象的功能單位的序列,并反映特定的理論觀點。

      任何一種轉寫法中(不管是語音的還是音位的),每個可區分的音都有自己的“音符”。全部可供利用的音符稱作“音標表”。這種音標表中使用最廣泛的是國際音標表。

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      在线精品国产一区二区三区,欧美最猛性XXXXX大叫,亚欧美日韩香蕉在线播放视频