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      Velar
      發布時間:2019年07月15日     發布人:nanyuzi  
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      Velar

      軟腭音

       

      A term used in the phonetic classification of consonant sounds on the basis of their place of articulation: it refers to a sound made by the back of the tongue against the soft palate, or velum (the ‘veil’ of the palate). Examples in English are [k] and [g], and the -ng- sound [?] as in the sing. Velar fricative sounds are both found in German and Greek, for example, and are transcribed [x] and [?] for the voiceless and voiced types respectively. If the velum is raised to shut off the nasal tract, a velic closure has been made.

      Velar sounds are different from velaric sounds. The term ‘velaric’ refers to a quite different mode of speech production: instead of using an airstream mechanism involving the lungs, velaric sounds use air generated by a closure in velar position. The back of the tongue is raised against the velum, and articulations are made further forward by the lips or front parts of the tongue. These sounds are usually called clicks, and have a distinctive role in some languages, such as Zulu. In English, they may be heard in the ‘tut tut’ sound, and in a few other contexts.

       

      語音學按發音部位給輔音分類的術語,指舌后抵住軟腭發出的音。英語的例子有[k]、[g]和sing“唱”中的-ng [?]音。軟腭擦音見于德語和希臘語及其他一些語言,不帶聲的和帶聲的分別記作[x]和[?]。如果軟腭上抬關閉鼻腔聲道,就形成“軟腭閉塞”。

      軟腭音不同于軟腭閉塞音?!败涬耖]塞音”指一種獨特的語音產生方式:不是用肺部氣流機制,而是用軟腭位置閉塞產生的氣流。舌后上抬抵住軟腭,而由很靠前的雙唇或舌的前部發音。這類音通常稱作吸氣音,在有些語言中有區別作用,如祖魯語;英語中發出tut tut“嘖嘖”聲和其他幾種聲音時也能聽到。

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