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      Vocal Cords / Lips / Bands / Folds
      發布時間:2019年07月16日     發布人:nanyuzi  
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      Vocal Cords / Lips / Bands / Folds

      聲帶

       

      Two muscular folds running from a single point inside the front of the thyroid cartilage (Adam’s apple) backwards to the front ends of the arytenoid cartilages. The vocal folds are very flexible, being shaped by the combined activities of the associated cartilages and muscles. The space between them is known as the glottis.

      The vocal folds have several functions. Their main role in speech is to vibrate in such a manner as to produce voice, a process known as phonation. When the folds are not vibrating, two main alternative positions are available. They may be tightly closed (‘abducted’), as when the breath is held - a process which produces a glottal stop upon release. Or they may remain open (‘abducted’), so that the breath flowing through the glottis produces audible friction, as in whispering and the [h] sound. Other ‘phonation types’ are possible, by varying the mode of vibration of the vocal folds in various ways, as in breathy and creaky voice. Varying the thickness, length and tension of the vocal folds also produces the different registers in voice production. Lastly, by varying the rate and strength of vibration of the vocal folds, variations in pitch and loudness can be introduced into speech.

       

      兩條肌肉褶,從甲狀軟骨(喉結)前部內的同一點出發向后延伸到杓狀軟骨的前端。聲帶非常柔軟靈活,可由相連的軟骨和肌肉的聯合活動而改變形狀。兩條聲帶之間的縫隙稱作聲門。

      聲帶有多種功能。在言語的主要作用是以一定方式震動而產生嗓音,這個過程稱作發聲。聲帶不振動時可取兩個主要位置中的一個:可以緊閉(“內收”),如屏氣時,然后釋放而產生一個聲門塞音;也可以保持開放(“外展”),通過聲門的氣流產生可聞摩擦,如低聲耳語和發[h]音。也可以以各種其他方式改變聲帶的振動方式,從而產生其他“發聲類型”,如呼氣聲和嘎吱聲。改變聲帶的厚度、長度和緊度也能產生不同聲域的嗓音。最后,改變聲帶震動的速度和強度可以在言語中產生音高和響度的變化。

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