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      A system of grammatical analysis developed in generative linguistics as an alternative to traditional accounts of phrase structure and lexical categories. It is argued both that the rules of phrase-structure grammar need to be more constrained, and that more phrasal categories need to be recognized. In particular, within the noun phrase, the need is felt to recognize intermediate categories larger than the noun but smaller than the phrase, e.g. very fast or very fast car in the phrase the very fast car. These intermediate categories, which have no status in previous phrase-structure models, are formally recognized in X-bar syntax by a system of X-bars, each of which identifies a level of phrasal expansion. For example, the following tree illustrates two levels of expansion for (‘N-bar’ and ‘N-double-bar’):

      Each of the bar categories corresponding to X is known as a bar-projection of X. The value of recognizing intermediate categories in this way is widely agreed, but discussion continues about the number of categories which need to be recognized, and how far it is possible to generalize rules of category formation throughout a grammar.

       

      生成語言學建立的一種語法分析系統,用來取代短語結構和詞匯范疇的傳統說明。按這個系統,一方面短語結構語法規則須受更多的制約,另一方面須承認更多的短語范疇。具體而言,在名詞短語內,似有必要承認一些大于名詞而小于短語的范疇,例如短語the very fast car“那輛非??斓钠嚒眱鹊膙ery fast“非??臁被騰ery fast car“非??斓钠嚒边@樣的中間范疇,他們在以往的短語結構模型中沒有地位,而在X-杠句法中由一X-杠系統作形式上的區分,每個X-杠等同于一個短語擴展層面。例如,下面的樹表示N的兩個擴展層面(“N-杠”和“N-雙杠”):


      對應于X的每個杠范疇稱作X的杠投射。

      以這種方式承認有中間范疇存在,其價值已被廣泛接受,但需要承認的范疇的數目有多少,整部語法對范疇形成規則的概括能達到多大程度,這些問題還在不斷討論之中。

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      在线精品国产一区二区三区,欧美最猛性XXXXX大叫,亚欧美日韩香蕉在线播放视频