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      Word
      發布時間:2019年07月29日     發布人:nanyuzi  
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      Word

       

      A unit of expression which has universal intuitive recognition by native-speakers, in both spoken and written language. However, there are several difficulties in arriving at a consistent use of the term in relation to other categories of linguistic description, and in the comparison of languages of different structural types. These problems relate mainly to word identification and definition. They include, for example, decisions over word boundaries, as well as decisions over status.

      Three main senses of ‘word’ are usually distinguished (though terminology varies):

      (a) Words are the physically definable units which one encounters in a stretch of writing (bounded by spaces) or speech (where identification is more difficult, but where there may be phonological clues to identify boundaries, such as a pause, or juncture features). ‘Word’ in this sense is often referred to as the orthographic word (for writing) or the phonological word (for speech). A neutral term often used to subsume both is word form.

      (b) There is a more abstract sense, referring to the common factor underlying the set of forms which are plainly variants of the same unit, such as walk, walks, walking, walked. The ‘underlying’ word unit is often referred to as a lexeme. Lexemes are the units of vocabulary, and as such would be listed in a dictionary.

      (c) This then leaves the need for a comparably abstract unit to be set up to show how words work in the grammar of a language, and ‘word’, without qualification, is usually reserved for this role (alternatively, one may spell out this implication, referring to ‘morphemic / morphosyntactic / grammatical’ words, though the latter has an alternative sense). A word, then, is a grammatical unit, of the same theoretical kind as morpheme and sentence. In a hierarchical model of analysis, sentences (clauses, etc.) consist of words, and words consist of morphemes (minimally, one free morpheme). Word-order refers to the sequential arrangement of words in a language. Languages are sometimes classified in terms of whether their word-order is relatively ‘free’ (as in Latin) or ‘fixed’ (as in English).

       Several general subclassifications of words have been proposed, such as the distinction between variable and invariable types, grammatical (or function) words v. lexical words, closed-class v. open-class words, empty v. full words. At a more specific level, word-classes can be established, by analysing the various grammatical, semantic and phonological properties displayed by the words in a language, and grouping words into classes on the basis of formal similarities (e.g. their inflections and distribution). 

       

      指操本族語者憑直覺普遍承認的一個表達單位,不管是口說語還是書寫語。但是,與語言描寫的其他范疇相比,或不同結構類型的語言相比較時,要對這個名稱的用法取得一致有諸多困難。這些困難主要與詞的識別和定義有關。例如,如何確定詞的界限,又如何確定詞的地位。

      通常區分“詞”的三種主要涵義(名稱可能不一致):

      (a)詞是物理上可定義的單位,即一段書寫(有空格作邊界)或一段言語(識別較困難,但可借助音韻線索來識別邊界,如停頓或音渡特征)。這種涵義上的“詞”常稱作正字法的詞(指書寫)或音系學的詞(指言語)。用一個中性名稱統指兩者,稱作詞形式。

      (b)較抽象的一種涵義是指處于一組顯然是統一單位不同變體底層的那個公因子,例如walk,walks,walking,walked“走”就是同一個“詞”的不同變體。詞位是詞匯的單位,并作為這樣的單位在詞典中列出。

      (c)還有必要建立一個比較抽象的單位來表示詞在這一種語言的語法中如何起作用,而不加任何限定的“詞”就有這種涵義(也可具體表達這種涵義,稱作“語素學/形態句法學/語法的”詞,但“語法的詞”還另有涵義。因此詞是一個語法單位,跟語素和句子有同類的理論地位。在層級分析模型中,句子(小句等)由詞組成,詞又由語素組成(最少為一個自由語素)。詞序指一種語言中詞的順序排列。語言可根據其詞序是相對“自由”(如拉丁語)或“固定”(如英語)來分類。

      對詞的分類已經提出的方法有好幾種,例如區分變形詞和不變形詞,區分語法詞(功能詞)和詞匯詞,區分封閉類詞和開放類詞,區分虛詞和實詞。在一個較具體的層面上,可通過分析一種語言中詞顯示的各種語法、語義和音系特征來建立詞類,并根據形式相似(如屈折形式和分布)標準將詞歸并成類。

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