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      Zero
      發布時間:2019年08月06日     發布人:nanyuzi  
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      Zero

      零,零形式

        

      A term used in some areas of linguistics to refer to an abstract unit postulated by an analysis, but which has no physical realization in the stream of speech. Its symbol is ?. In English morphology, for example, the pressure of the grammatical system to analyse plurals as Noun + plural has led some linguists to analyse unchanged nouns, such as sheep and deer, as Noun + plural also, the plurality in these cases being realized as zero (a zero morph). A ‘zero operation’ of this kind is also called an ‘identity operation’, one where the input and the output of the operation are identical. Similarly, in other grammatical contexts where a given morpheme usually occurs, the absence of that morpheme under certain conditions may be referred to as zero, e.g. zero infinitive, referring to the absence of to before the verb in English; zero article, referring to the absence of a definite or indefinite article before a noun; zero connectors, as in he said he was coming, where that is omitted; zero valency, referring in valency grammar to verbs which take no complements; and zero relative clauses, as in the book I bought ... In cases such as He’s laughing, is he, some linguists analyse the second part of the sentence as a reduced form of the verb phrase is he laughing, referring to the omitted part by the term zero anaphora. Zero is also found in phonological analysis, e.g. in a conception of some types of juncture as zero phonemes, or to suggest a structural parallelism between syllable types (a CV sequence being seen as a CVC sequence, with the final C is being zero).

      Zero is especially encountered in the formulation of generative rules, where the term refers to an item deleted from a given context (a ‘deletion rule’). Such rules are of the type ‘rewrite A as zero, in the context X -Y’ (A→? / X - Y), and they apply in grammar, semantics and phonology. In X-bar syntax, a zero-level or zero-bar category is a lexical category.

      It is plain that the introduction of zero (sometimes referred to as the null element, deriving from the use of this term in mathematics) is motivated by the need to maintain a proportionality, or regular pattern, in one’s analysis, or in the interests of devising an economic statement. It should also be noted that too many zeros in an analysis weaken its plausibility.

       

      語言學某些領域用來指一種分析法設定的一個抽象單位,但在語流中沒有任何有形的實現。使用的符號是?。例如英語形態學,由于語法系統要求將復數都分析為名詞+復數,有的語言學家在分析不變形名詞如sheep“羊”和deer“鹿”時也將其分析為名詞+復數,只是這里的復數實現為零(零語子)。這種“零形操作”也稱作“等同操作”,即操作的輸入和輸出等同。同樣,其他語法上下文中如果通常有一給定語素出現,在某些條件下它的不出現就稱作零形式,例如零形不定式是指英語不定式動詞前沒有to;零形冠詞是指一個名詞前沒有定冠詞或不定冠詞;零形連接成分是指he said he was coming“他說他就來”這類句子中省略的that;零價是配價語法指不帶任何補語的動詞;零形關系小句是指省略關系代詞的關系小句,如the book I bought ...“我買的書…”。在He’s laughing, is he“他在大笑,是不是”這類句子中,有的語言學家將句子的后半部分分析為動詞短語is he laughing“他是不是在大笑”的縮減形式,并將縮減的部分稱作零形復指。音系學的分析也利用零形式,例如將某些類型的音渡視作零音位,或在不同音節類型之間建立結構上的平行關系(一個CV序列可視為CVC序列,最后的C為零)。

      零特別見于生成規則的形式表述,指在給定上下文中刪除的一個項目(“刪除規則”的作用)。這類規則術語在“X - Y的上下文中重寫A為零”一類(A→? / X - Y),對語法、語義學和音系學都適用。在X-杠句法中,零層面或零杠語類是詞匯語類。

      引入零的概念(有時稱作null(空)成分,借用自數學)目的是為了在某種分析中保持均衡性成對稱性,或是為了作出較經濟的說明。但分析中引入太多的零會削弱分析的合理性。

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      在线精品国产一区二区三区,欧美最猛性XXXXX大叫,亚欧美日韩香蕉在线播放视频