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      英語世界
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      論“圈子”
      發布時間:2017年10月27日     作者:Wangfengxin  
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      圈子

       

      /王逢鑫1

       

      在當代社會,人群中存在各種各樣的圈子。朋友圈就是一例,現已成為國人最重要的網絡社交平臺。的原義是指一種環狀物。圈子的比喻意義是具有相同愛好、興趣或者為了某個特定目的而聯系在一起的人群,英語可以譯為circle。例如:


      1. You can refer to a group of people as a circle when they meet each other regularly because they are friends or because they belong to the same profession or share the same interests. 假若一群人因為是朋友或因為屬于相同專業或擁有相同興趣而定期聚會,可以稱這群人為一個圈子。


      2. The white-collar workers of the company shut the newcomer from their circle. 這個公司的白領們把新人排除在他們的圈子之外。


      家庭圈子親屬圈子,英語可以譯為family circle。例如:


      3. The young woman can be unbent only in her family circle. 這個年輕女子只有在家庭圈子里才能輕松自如。


      朋友圈,英語可以譯為circle of friends。例如:


      4. You can expand your circle of friends if you often go out to take part in social activities. 經常出去參加社交活動,就能擴大自己的朋友圈。


      社交圈,英語可以譯為social circle、circle of society、social group。例如:


      5. He has got some reputation in his social circle. 他在他的社交圈里已經有點兒名聲了。


      讀者圈,英語可以譯為circle of readers、reading circle。例如:


      6. The writer’s new novel has reached a wide circle of readers.這位作家的新小說已擁有廣泛的讀者圈。


      娛樂圈,英語可以譯為entertainment circle。例如:


      7. The entertainment circle is a complicate human society, which is very suitable for his character. 娛樂圈是一個江湖,非常適合他的性格。


      圈子在表示職業或工作相同的一些社會成員的總體時,亦作,英語可以譯為circles。的細微區別在于:前者隱含非正式、從個體考慮和屬于口語等意思;后者隱含正式、從總體考慮和屬于書面語等意思。例如:


      8. The scientist is well known in the academic circles. 這位科學家在學術圈/界很有名。


      9. The newspaper has as many as two million readers in political and business circles. 這家報紙在政商圈/界的讀者多達200萬。


      ring的原義是“an object in the shape of a circle with a large hole in the middle”,即環狀物,其比喻意義是“a group of people who work together, often dishonestly, secretly or illegally in business or crime for their own advantage”“a combination of people for some selfish or unlawful purpose”,相當于”“團伙,或帶有貶義的。例如:


      10. In April, 62 alleged members of the telecom fraud ring that had been operating in Uganda, including 10 from Taiwan, were brought back to the Chinese mainland. 四月,一直在烏干達活動的電信詐騙團伙的62名涉嫌成員被押回中國大陸,其中10名來自中國臺灣。


      11. The officer was suspected of involvement in an international drug ring. 那個官員被懷疑卷入了一個國際販毒團伙。


      12. The auctioneers organized a secret ring to control the sales. 這些拍賣商組織了一個秘密團伙來操縱拍賣。


      loop 的原義是 a shape like a circle made by a line curving right round and crossing itself,即環狀物,也有圈子的比喻意義。to be in the loop的意思是 to be part of a group of people that is dealing with sth important,即屬于(處理要務的)圈內人;to be out of the loop屬于圈外人。例如:


      13. A lot of people want to be in the loop on this operation. 許多人都想在這次行動中成為圈內人。


      14. He told me what had happened in the office. It made me feel in the loop. 他告訴了我辦公室里所發生的事。這讓我覺得自己是圈內人。


      15. Tom has gradually been cut out of the loop on legal affairs.湯姆已逐漸被排擠出法律事務的圈子。


      to keep sb in the loop 的意思是使某人成為圈內人。例如:


      16. As I am sure to keep you in the loop, I’ll give you a daily update on our progress. 我保證讓你成為圈內人,所以會每天向你報告最新進展。

       

      注釋:

       

      1. 王逢鑫,北京大學外國語學院英語系教授、博士生導師。

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