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      英語世界
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      不朽的喬伊斯
      發布時間:2018年01月01日     文潔若 譯  
      來源: 英語世界
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      不朽的喬伊斯

      Joyce Immortal


      文、譯/文潔若[1]


      愛爾蘭和挪威都是小國,地處歐洲的邊陲。十二世紀以來,愛爾蘭受英吉利統治者的壓迫,民族獨立運動從未停止過。一九四九年成立愛爾蘭共和國。挪威呢,一八一四年就被丹麥割與瑞典,一九〇五年獨立為挪威王國。


      Both Ireland and Norway are small countries on the fringes of Europe. Oppressed by the British since the 12th century, the Irish movement toward independence had never ceased until the founding of the Republic of Ireland in 1949. As for Norway, it became an independent kingdom in 1905, following its own history of being given to Sweden by Denmark in 1814.


      詹姆斯·喬伊斯十六歲時,是個虔誠的男孩兒。后來逐漸放棄了家庭與學校灌輸給他的天主教信仰,開始堅定地搜尋新價值和新追求。他博覽群書,偶然讀到易卜生的作品,立即興奮不已,一九〇〇年四月一日,十八歲的他在英國雜志《半月評論》發表評論《易卜生的新戲劇》,此文獲得年過七旬的易卜生的稱許,使喬伊斯深受鼓舞,從而下定決心,走上文學道路。


      James Joyce was a pious boy at 16. In later years he gradually gave up the Catholic faith given to him by his family and schools and began to search determinedly for new values and pursuits. A voracious reader, he came upon Ibsen’s work and was thrilled by it. On April 1st, 1900, at the age of 18, he published, in the English magazine Fortnight Review, a review entitled “Ibsen’s New Drama”. This review was praised by the over-70-year-old Ibsen, which gave Joyce the courage and will to embark on his literary journey.


      易卜生的劇本中,喬伊斯最看重《培爾·金特》。一九〇七年十一月十日,喬伊斯的弟弟斯坦尼斯勞斯在日記里寫道:“吉姆告訴我,他要把他的故事《尤利西斯》擴大為一本小書(short book),寫成都柏林的培爾·金特?!?


      Of all the plays by Ibsen, Joyce was partial to Peer Gynt. On January 10, 1907, Joyce’s brother Stanislaus wrote in his diary “Jim told me that he intends to expand his story Ulysses into a short book, turning it into Peer Gynt of Dublin”.


      一九八三年二月,蕭乾翻譯的《培爾·金特》由四川人民出版社出版。五月,《培爾·金特》由中央戲劇學院公演。導演是中央戲劇學院院長徐曉鐘先生。劉少奇夫人王光美等人也觀看了演出。


      In February of 1983, Sichuan People’s Publishing House published Xiao Qian’s Chinese translation of Peer Gynt. In May that year, the play was staged by China’s Central Drama Academy under the direction of its president Mr. Xu Xiaozhong. Ms. Wang Guangmei, widow of China’s late chairman, Liu Shaoqi, came to view it with others.


      一九九〇年至一九九四年,當我和蕭乾合譯《尤利西斯》時,第十五章中斯蒂芬醺醺地與妓女們廝混,活脫兒就是十年前我們在劇院的舞臺上看到的培爾·金特!


      When Xiao Qian and I collaborated on translating Ulysses into Chinese from 1990 to 1994, how the intoxicated Stephen fooling around with prostitutes in Chapter 15 struck us like Peer on the academy’s stage ten years earlier!


      …………

      一晃兒蕭乾和我合譯的《尤利西斯》已經出版二十年了。我對一九九四年《尤利西斯》出版時在國內引起的轟動記憶猶新。


      20 years have gone by since our translation of Ulysses saw publication. I remember only too well the sensations that the news caused in Chinese and international press.


      《尤利西斯》出版后,我曾想把《芬尼根的守靈夜》也譯出來。蕭乾卻對我說:“《尤利西斯》被稱為天書,其實《芬尼根的守靈夜》才是真正的天書?!斗夷岣氖仂`夜》對語言的改變太大,對譯者的要求太高?!碑敃r我還不服氣,嘗試了一頁,就放棄了。然而,我相信,喬伊斯在中國的年輕一代中也能找到知音。


      After Ulysses came out, I fancied the idea of translating Finnegans Wake as well, but Xiao Qian told me “Ulysses might be called book of enigma, but Finnegans Wake is the real book of enigma. No matter how difficult, Ulysses is translatable whereas Finnegans Wake alters language too much and places too high a demand on translators”. Not willing to back down at the time, I attempted one page and gave up. However, it was my belief that Joyce would find kindred spirits among China’s younger generations.


      果然,我的忘年交馮建明用英文寫的The Transfigurations of the Characters in Joyce’s Novels(《喬伊斯長篇小說人物的變形》)于二〇〇五年由北京外文出版社出版。博士生導師李維屏在該書前言中寫道:“……馮建明博士撰寫的《喬伊斯長篇小說人物的變形》一書為我國喬學的發展起到推波助瀾的作用。這部著作具有兩個明顯的特點。首先,這是一部由中國學者用英語撰寫的有關喬伊斯的學術著作,而且這表明中國學者已經可以與外國喬學家平等地對話與交流?!瓎桃了乖浾f過,《尤利西斯》將迫使教授和學者們‘爭論幾個世紀’,而《芬尼根的蘇醒》則‘將使批評家們至少忙上三百年’?!颐靼琢诉@樣一個道理:從事喬學研究者不但要執著,而且也要創新?!?


      Not surprisingly, in October 2005 Beijing Foreign Literature Press published Transfigurations of the Characters in Joyce’s Novels written originally in English by my young friend Feng Jianming. Mr. Li Weiping, the dissertation advisor, wrote in his preface for the book “… Dr. Feng Jianming’s Transfigurations of the Characters in Joyce’s Novels will make a great boost for our country’s studies of Joyce. It has two obvious features. It is the first scholarly study on Joyce written by a Chinese scholar in English, thereby demonstrating that the Chinese scholars are capable of discourse and exchange on par with foreign Joyce specialists. Joyce had said Ulysses would force the professors and scholars to ‘argue for several centuries’, whereas Finnegans Wake ‘will keep critics busy for at least three hundred years’… I came to the understanding that Joyce researchers not only need to be persistent but innovative…”


      …………


      最后談談改革開放以來的感受。一九四九年十月,中國人民站起來了。然而,政治運動頻仍,無辜的犧牲者不計其數。


      Finally I want to reflect on how I have felt since the days of rectifications. The Chinese people did stand up in October 1949. However, during the unceasing political movements countless innocent lives were sacrificed.


      今年三月二十八日的《解放日報》刊載了《跨界對話,擦出多少火花》一文,其中莫言先生對楊振寧先生說:他(指莫言先生本人)能得獎,是因為這個時代,如果沒有三十多年來中國的改革開放與進步,就沒有他這么個作家。楊振寧先生說,他回國九年多了。他覺得中國最大的改變,不是建起了很多高樓大廈,而是農村和農民的思維方式。


      The March 28th edition of Liberation Daily this year published an essay entitled “Conversations Across Borders Ignited Countless Sparkles” which quoted Mr. Mo Yan telling Mr. Yang Zhenning that he (Mr. Mo Yan himself) could win the Nobel literary prize was due to this epoch; without the progress and changes in China in the last thirty years, there would not be a writer like him. Yang replied that he has returned to China for more than nine years now, and he felt that the greatest changes in China was not in building many skyscrapers but in the countryside and how farmers thought about things.


      對我而言, 現在確實是最好的時代。我出生于一九二七年,經歷過一九三七年的七七事變,抗日戰爭。一九七九年二月,蕭乾先生拿到一紙改正書,全家人的生活起了很大變化。


      As for me, the present time period is truly the best. I was born in 1927 and experienced the July 7th Incident of 1937 and the Chinese People’s War of Resistance Against Japanese Aggression. In February, 1979, Mr. Xiao Qian was given a decree of rehabilitation, which bettered a lot for our whole family.


      從八十年代起,上海的博士生,年輕有為,一批一批地積極要求到邊遠地區,到最艱苦的地方去,把自己的青春年華揮灑在那里,改善當地人的生活。改造環境,造福當地老百姓。正是有這一批批不講功利的年輕人,才真正賦予了我們整個時代希望的色彩,讓我們的時代越來越好。


      From the 80’s on, many groups of talented and young PhDs from Shanghai volunteered to go to the boundary lands and other remote, difficult territories, dedicating their youth and sweat in order to improve the lives of the local populace, better the environment and benefit the masses. It is these young people, group after group of them, with their lack of concern for material return and honorary titles, who beautify our time with hope and make it better still.


      詹姆斯·喬伊斯經常是悲觀的。倘若他看到了二十一世紀的這些中國博士生,我相信他會感到無比欣慰。


      James Joyce was pessimistic more often than not. If he met these young Chinese intellectuals of the 21st century, I believe he would feel greatly relieved and pleased.


      [1] 文潔若,翻譯家。1927年7月15日出生于北京,原籍貴州,1950年清華大學畢業。是中國翻譯日文作品最多的人。日本作家川端康成、三島由紀夫、芥川龍之介以及松本清張的作品,很多都是經由她之手被引薦給中國讀者的。她與丈夫蕭乾晚年合譯愛爾蘭作家詹姆斯·喬伊斯的《尤利西斯》,更是一件文壇盛事。

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