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      狗年話說漢英詞典中的“狗”
      發布時間:2018年02月23日     發布人:nanyuzi  
      來源: 英語世界
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      狗年話說漢英詞典中的


      文/肖福壽1


      在漢語言中,狗被稱為。中華民族的犬文化源遠流長,已有八千多年的歷史?!墩f文稽古篇》記載游牧時代,惟犬獨多,穴居則畜犬守御,狩獵則攜犬自隨,因而人必備犬,可見犬早已就與人類朝夕為伍;《本草綱目》云稱狗有烏龍白龍之號”,可見犬與四靈有相同的靈性,已被尊奉為圖騰;《禮記·曲禮》載凡祭宗廟之禮:牛曰一元大武,豕曰剛鬣,豚曰腯肥,羊曰柔毛,雞曰翰音,犬曰羹獻……”,可見犬已作祭祀之用,為人們降福降祉;《汲冢周書》曰商湯時,四方獻,以珠璣玳瑁短狗獻,可見犬已用作寵物饋贈,甚至作為貢品進貢;《史記·蘇秦列傳》言臨淄甚富而實,其民無不吹竽鼓瑟,彈琴擊筑,斗雞走狗,六博蹋鞠者,可見犬已作玩賞與陪伴之用。古人甚至將犬升華為一種忠義精神,教育人們要學會甘效犬馬之勞,忠于國家,忠于朋友,忠于家人。紀昀《閱微草堂筆記》贊曰:余謂犬之為物,不煩驅策,而警夜不失職,寧忍寒餓,而戀主不他往,天下為僮仆者,實萬萬不能及。其足使人愧,正不在能語不能語耳。


      可以說,狗因可愛、忠誠、勇敢而著稱,早已被國人視為一種吉利的動物,一種與人類同甘共苦的寵物。而且,狗還是一種能夠預示前兆的動物,故古人常以狗吠的時辰來測吉兇:子時狗吠,則主夫之人,時爭鬧畫;丑時狗吠,則主心中有,憂疑之事;寅時狗吠,則主失得財,帛大吉利;卯時狗吠,則主失雄心,得財利來;辰時狗吠,則主有財喜,大事通吉;巳時狗吠,則主親人來,及有信至;午時狗吠,則主有酒食,宴會事吉;未時狗吠,則主妻外心,有破財喜;申時狗吠,則主家宅內,小口事兇;酉時狗吠,則主加官祿,有得財吉;戌時狗吠,則主有口舌,招災事兇;亥時狗吠,則主有官司,詞訟隨后。


      2018年,是中國農歷戊戌年,即民間生肖紀年的狗年。在這狗年之際,讓我們重新檢閱一下漢英詞典中與狗相關的種種說法,聊作一種新年之樂吧。

       

      本文的語料主要選取自陸谷孫教授主編的《中華漢英大詞典》,均為該詞典的編纂者自以為迻譯尚有特點的與狗有關的表達法,其目的在于與廣大讀者共享并敦請廣大讀者質疑與指謬。


      …………


      二、與有關的兩字表達


      這方面的表達,多數為名詞,有少量的動詞或形容詞。在這些名詞當中,不少為專有名詞,其中包括一些比喻詞或詈詞。具體請見以下例子:


      狗才 worthless person; incompetent person


      狗盜 thief


      狗命  (1) dog’s life (2)wretched existence


      狗屁 rubbish, nonsense (usu of writing): | ~不通 mere trash or rubbish | ~文章 a worthless piece of writing


      狗食  (1) dog food (2)useless things: ~盆子a good-for-nothing


      狗窩  (1) kennel; doghouse (2)dirty or messy or untidy (room)


      …………


      三、與有關的三字表達


      這方面的表達,均為名詞,不少是專有名詞,其中包括一些口語詞、比喻詞、詈詞等。具體請見以下例子:


      狗吃屎  dog eating dung; to fall flat on the face; to fall to the ground face down [usu a heavy fall]: 摔了個~ fall flat on the face


      狗爬式  dog-paddle [swimming style]


      狗脾氣 bad disposition


      狗腿子 hired thug; lackey; henchman


      狗咬狗 (dog-eat-dog ) strife or dogfight [usu among bad people]


      狗仔隊  paparazzi


      …………


      四、與有關的四字表達


      這方面的表達,絕大部分為習語,只有少量的一般性表達,其中含有一些貶義性的詞語。具體請見以下例子:


      狗盜雞鳴 (1) having little tricks (2) slinkingly; covertly


      狗茍蠅營 to seek gains shamelessly


      狗急跳墻 (a dog at bay will jump over a wall) to take a desperate action in a critical situation: ~, 人急懸梁 (just as a cornered dog will leap over a wall, so a desperate person will hang himself from a roof beam) desperate people will resort to desperate measures


      狗皮膏藥  (1) dogskin plaster (2)quack remedies; worthless goods


      狗頭狗腦  (1) furtive; sneaky: 這家伙~, 來歷不明 judging from that guy’s furtive manner, he might be a trouble (2) words used by the older generation to the younger ones to wish them health: 保佑你日后~的, 長命百歲 wish you health and many happy returns


      狗頭軍師 person who likes to give advice, but not very good advice; person who offers bad advice; inept advisor


      狗尾續貂 (a dog’s tail attached to a sable) a wretched sequel attached to a fine work; to complete a masterpiece with poor finishing (of literary works)


      狗血噴頭  also 狗血淋頭a stream of abuse; a torrent of abuse


      狗仗人勢 (like a dog threatening people on the strength of its master’s power) to be a bully with the backing of a powerful person; to take advantage of one’s or sb else’s power to bully people


      五、與有關的五字或以上的表達


      這方面的表達,絕大部分為習語或俗語,僅有極少的一般性表達。具體請見以下例子:


      狗不上前用食喂,馬不上套駕鞭打 (if a dog won’t advance toward you, feed it with food; if a horse won’t get into harness, beat it with a whip) different people or situations should be treated with different tactics


      狗不嫌家貧 dogs do not shun a poor home


      狗都有翹尾巴的時候 (every dog has his time to stick up his tail) every dog will have his day


      狗多不怕狼,人多不怕虎 (when dogs are many, they dread no wolves; when people are many, they dread no tigers) there is strength in numbers


      狗改不了吃屎 you can’t make a crab walk straight; a leopard never changes its spot; it’s hard to change sb’s bad disposition


      狗拿耗子, 多管閑事 (like a dog trying to catch mice) to poke one’s nose into other people’s business; to be a busybody; to be too meddlesome


      狗瘦主人羞 (if a dog is thin, its master feels ashamed) a leader feels ashamed when his subordinates misbehave


      狗頭上擱不住肉骨頭 (no meaty bones can be kept on a dog’s head for long) certain people or situations are just hopeless


      狗頭上長角 (a horn growing on a dog’s head) utter impossibility


      狗眼看人低 to be snobbish


      狗咬呂洞賓 (a dog snapping at Lǚ Dongbin [the first of the eight immortals]) not to recognize a good person or his good intention; to bite the hand that feeds one


      狗嘴吐不出象牙also狗嘴里長不出象牙 (no ivory will come out of a dog’s mouth) no decent words come from the mouth of a bad person; filthy mouth can’t utter decent language; what can you expect from a dog but a bark


      的確,漢語中與“狗”有關的表達實在太豐富了,諸如“狗寶”“狗竇”“狗魚”“狗刨兒”“狗盜鼠竊”“狗走狐淫”“狗咬狗,兩嘴毛”等詞語的英文翻譯,更待我們共同探索。


      注釋:


      1. 南京大學博士,哈佛大學訪問學者,現為上海大學教授、英語系主任,主要從事英語語塊學、ESL寫作以及詞典編纂研究。

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