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      Chinese Tribe Without Marriage Points to Future
      發布時間:2018年02月01日     卜杭賓 譯  
      來源: 英語世界
      字號 簡體 繁體 打印

      Chinese Tribe Without Marriage Points to Future


      By Nigel Barber


      The Mosuo people[1] of southwest China do not marry and fathers do not live with, or support, children. Do the Mosuo anticipate a global future where no one marries?


      [1] the Mosuo people摩梭族在中國屬于未識別民族,所以中國的56個民族中沒有摩梭族。本文統譯作“摩梭人”。

      Whether the Mosuo have marriage depends upon what you mean by marriage. Their mating system is called “walking marriage[2]” where the man and woman do not live together even though they sleep together.


      [2] walking marriage 走婚


      As soon as she is sexually mature[3], a young woman gets her own bedroom[4] and may invite a man to spend the night with her. If babies are produced from these informal unions, they are raised by the mother with the help of her siblings[5] and the father does not provide economic support.


      [3] sexually mature 性成熟。


      [4] bedroom 花樓,即摩梭成年女性的房間。


      [5] sibling 兄弟或姐妹。

      So far, it might seem that this is no different from a women in a modern society having one night stands[6] and opting to[7] become pregnant as a result. Yet, walking marriages are not necessarily casual relationships[8]. In general, they seem to be long-standing arrangements that can even last for a lifetime.


      [6] one night stand 一夜情。


      [7] opt to do 選擇做某事。


      [8] casual relationship (尤指性方面)關系隨意。

      Moreover, Mosuo women generally know the paternity[9] of the children and the father is ceremonially[10] welcomed by children on special occasions, such as Chinese New Year. So, however minimal[11] they are, walking marriages include one key feature of other marriages, namely the joining of a kin[12] network.


      [9] paternity 父親的身份


      [10] ceremonially 禮儀性地;儀式上。


      [11] minimal 極少的;極小的。

      [12] kin 親戚;家族。

      What is conspicuously[13] missing is the economic support that married fathers around the world are expected to provide for their children in return for the opportunity of fathering children of the marriage.


      [13] conspicuously 顯著地。


      The avunculate[14]



      [14] avunculate 舅權。

      How could such a seemingly unbalanced version of marriage come to exist? Anthropologists offer some clues because there are other societies where fathers invest little in[15] children of their marriage. Instead, they become attached to[16] children of their sisters – a phenomenon known as the avunculate.


      [15] invest in 在......投入(時間、精力等)。


      [16] be attached to 對......有依賴;喜愛。

      The avunculate likely exists because a husband’s confidence of paternity of children of the marriage is low. Whether this is true of the Mosuo is unknown.


      Apart from low confidence of paternity, there is another good reason that men (and women) might choose to care for their nieces and nephews as though they were offspring. It might be a response to the difficult living conditions of the Himalayas. After all, such conditions in Tibet may be responsible for the very unusual marriage system of polyandry[17] where a pair of brothers shares a bride.


      [17] polyandry 一妻多夫制。

      Yet another possible reason for walking marriage is that Mosuo men used to be long-distance traders who were absent for long periods in trading caravans[18].


      [18] caravans(穿過沙漠地帶的)旅行隊或商隊。此處特指摩梭人跟隨馬幫外出趕馬的習俗。

      What it means for the future


      Modern marriage may be converging[19] on the Mosuo tradition in the sense that formal marriage may well be on the way out. The key data point here is the fact that in some developed countries, the majority of children are already born outside marriage in a fast-developing trend.


      [19] converge 聚集;交匯。

      One of the key practical factors today is that mothers are financially much more independent than was true in the past thanks to near-universal[20] participation in the paid labor force. Another is that women have remarkably small families of just one or two that they may be able to raise independently particularly if they live in a modern welfare state with extensive government supports for children and aggressive[21] collection of maternity payments[22].


      [20] near-universal 極為普遍的;幾乎所有的。


      [21] aggressive 積極進取的;有闖勁的。


      [22] maternity payment 產假工資。


      So the Mosuo may either be one of those strange historical holdovers[23] – a marginal group occupying a marginal ecology. Or they may offer a revealing[24] glimpse into the future in which formal marriage suddenly disappears.


      [23] holdovers 殘余;遺物。


      [24] revealing 發人深省的。