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      英語世界
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      翻譯擂臺第3期點評
      發布時間:2017年09月01日     發布人:nanyuzi  
      來源: 英語世界
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      【原文】


      [1]中西方文化里,“心”和“腦”有著不同的涵義。[2]中國人自古就認為“心之官則思”;在西方,若家長告訴孩子“做事要用心”,則是指“跟著感覺走”,而思維處于大腦之中。[3]在科學上,西醫的“心”與中醫的“心”并非是一個概念:前者是建立在解剖學、生理學和神經學等基礎上的純粹生物概念;后者則不僅限于醫學,而且還是一種文化、哲學、宗教,甚至玄學的理念——“心者,神之舍也”。

      ——林巍


      本段文字以“心”和“腦”的概念為截面,簡要分析了二者在中西文化里的不同涵義。參賽者大都能翻譯出基本意思,但在遣詞用語(diction)方面似還有提高的空間。


      所謂diction,在翻譯中可理解為the proper choiceand use of words and phrases to express meaning on the basis of accurate understanding of the original等。以此而論,只是大概翻譯出來是不夠的。


      [1]中,對于“涵義”,大部分參賽者用了meanings、implications、definitions等,固然有一定道理,但更為準確的應為connotations,其原意是a feeling or an idea that a word makes you think of that is not its actual meaning,即深層隱含之意,同時詞序也應隨英文習慣調整,故整句不妨譯為:“Heart” and “brain” have different connotations in Chinese and Western cultures.


      [2]中,“心之官則思”是孟子所說(有的譯文指出了這一點),因而自古形成共識,對此有多種譯法,如:“The heart is the organ for thinking.”,“The heart’s function is to think.”,“The office of the mind is to think.”(《新英漢大辭典》)。而the heart is controlled by thinking則過于偏頗。為了強調,不妨譯為:The heart is the very organ generating thought.“做事要用心”,有的譯成to work hard with minds,則又混淆了heart和mind在中西文化中的區別,故可為to do things with their hearts或do it with your heart等?!案杏X走”,譯成follow their/your feeling/instinct/nose似都可以,但要注意直接引語與間接引語在標點符號上的區別;同時,有“不是根據理性思考”(not follow their minds)之意,可適當增譯。緊接的“而思維處于大腦之中”,許多人沒有翻譯出來,或是忽略了;而譯成thought exists in the brain亦有缺陷,因exist是一種客觀靜態,此處不妨譯成動態。具體而言,thought是the content of cognition,而thinking則是the process of using your mind to consider something carefully。一般來講,“I thought about it”是指“我過去以為是那樣”,而通常的“思維”“考慮”為thinking。同時,原文是分開的,但考慮到英文“形合”的特點,可將其并為一處,整句不妨譯為:Since the ancient times the Chinese believe that “the heart is the very organ generating thought”. In the West, when parents tell their children to do things with their hearts, they mean to follow their feelings not their minds, for thinking is taking place in the brain.


      [3]中,“在科學上”,譯成In science/scientifically speaking/scientifically都是可取的。將“西醫的‘心’與中醫的‘心’并非是一個概念”譯成“It isn’t the same concept of heart between western medicine and Chinese traditional medicine”,本身便沒有區分出heart與 xin的不同性質;同時,Traditional Chinese Medicine一般在第一次出現后縮寫為TCM,Western Medicine為WM,便于之后的表述?!靶恼?,神之舍也”出自《黃帝內經》(這一點亦應以適當方式在譯文中體現),其中的“心”還是中國傳統文化意義上的,不應理解成mind,故仍為heart;“舍”似可為home、house等,而sanctuary、dwelling place則更準確。在句式上,該句既可整合表述,如:Scientifically, “heart” in the Western Medicine (WM) and “xin” in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) are different things: the former refers to a purely biological concept based on anatomy, biology and neurology; while the latter denotes to not only a medical concept, but an idea of culture, philosophy, religion and even metaphysics – “heart is where the spirit lives” as it is believed in TCM. 也可分句處理,如:Scientifically speaking, there are different understandings of heart (xin) in Western Medicine (WM) and Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Heart in WM is purely abiological concept based on anatomy, biology, neurology and so on. TCM is much more holistic, everything being rooted in culture, philosophy, religion or even metaphysics, so that heart is regarded to be the “dwelling place of the spirit”.


      總之,詞語的辨析是基本功,由此建立不同的句式。


      此外,個別譯文有抄襲嫌疑,此處不點名,但予以警示,并取消參賽資格。

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