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      英語世界
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      The Fast Way to Long Life: Starve Every Other Day
      發布時間:2018年04月01日     王雄 譯  
      來源: 英語世界
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      The Fast Way to Long Life: Starve Every Other Day

      吃一天餓一天有助長壽


      By Jonathan Leake

      文/喬納森·利克


      Starving yourself every other day can make you live longer, American government scientists say.


      美國政府科學家稱,隔日斷食能夠延年益壽。


      They have discovered that a diet based on fasting[1] on alternate days will not only help people to shed pounds[2] but could delay age-related disease, boost brain power and extend lifespan.


      他們發現,基于隔日斷食的飲食法不僅有助于減輕體重,還可以延緩罹患老年病、增強腦力以及延長壽命。


      [1] fasting 節食,禁食。

       

      [2] pound 磅(重量單位),引申為體重。


      The experimental diet, pioneered at the National Institutes on Aging (NIA), is based on the fact that animals given the bare minimum of calories required to maintain life can live up to twice as long.


      這一實驗性飲食法由美國國家老齡化研究所(NIA)首倡。其事實依據是,讓動物僅攝入維持生命所需最低卡路里,其壽命可延長一倍。


      Such diets appear to protect the heart, circulatory system[3] and brain against age-related diseases, including Alzheimer’s. It was previously thought to have little relevance to humans because so few people would have the willpower to keep their calorie intake so low.


      如此飲食似乎可以幫助心臟、血液循環系統以及大腦抵御老年病,包括阿爾茨海默病。之前的觀點普遍認為這一事實與人類關系不大,因為很少有人能夠堅持將卡路里的攝入量控制在如此低的水平。


      [3] circulatory system 血液循環系統。


      However, scientists at the NIA have now found that fasting every second day is almost as effective, while still allowing dieters to eat what they like on days between fasts.


      然而,NIA的科學家現已發現,采取隔日斷食幾乎同樣有效,而且節食者在不禁食期間可隨意飲食。


      The idea has been tested on animals but the scientists who conducted the research have found similar evidence for humans.


      這一想法已經在動物身上得到驗證,而進行這一研究的科學家在人類身上也發現了類似的證據。


      “Dietary energy restriction extends lifespan and protects the brain and cardiovascular[4] system against age-related disease,” said Mark Mattson, head of the laboratory of neurosciences[5] at the NIA and professor of neuroscience at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore.


      NIA神經科學實驗室主管、約翰·霍普金斯大學巴爾的摩主校區的神經科學教授馬克·馬特森稱:“限制飲食能量可以延長壽命,并可保護大腦和心血管系統免遭老年病的侵襲?!?


      [4] cardiovascular 心血管的。

       

      [5] neurosciences 神經科學。

       

      “We have found that dietary energy restriction, particularly when administered in intermittent[6] bouts of major caloric restriction, such as alternative day fasting, activates cellular stress response pathways[7] in neurons[8].”


      “我們已經發現,限制飲食能量,特別是間歇性大幅限制卡路里攝入(例如隔日斷食),可以激活神經元的細胞壓力反應通路?!?

       

      [6] intermittent 間歇的。

       

      [7] pathway 生物名詞,多用為信號通路(signal pathway),是指當細胞內要發生某種反應時,信號從細胞外到細胞內傳遞了一種信息,細胞要根據這種信息來做出反應的現象。


      [8] neuron 神經元。


      Such responses help rejuvenate the brain and so boost or protect cognitive powers and intelligence, said Matt-son.


      馬特森稱,這類反應有助于恢復大腦活力,從而提高或保護認知能力和智力。


      In one set of experiments, Matt-son and his colleagues fed laboratory mice only on alternate days. They allowed other mice to eat daily. Both groups of animals were given unlimited access to food when they were permitted to eat and, over time, averaged the same overall calorie intake.


      在一次系列實驗中,馬特森和同事對實驗鼠進行隔日喂食,對其他老鼠則每日喂食。在允許進食時,兩組動物的進食量不受限制。最終,兩組動物的總體卡路里攝入量平均而言完全一致。


      Mattson found, however, that the animals fed intermittently retained a higher sensitivity to insulin[9], the hormone which controls sugar levels in the blood after a meal or snack. This meant they needed to secrete less of the insulin, high levels of which have been found to be associated with lower brain power and a higher risk of diabetes.


      然而,馬特森發現,間歇性喂食的動物對胰島素保有更高的敏感性。胰島素是一種控制進食后血糖水平的激素。這意味著它們需要減少胰島素的分泌。而胰島素高往往會使腦力下降,增加患糖尿病的風險。


      [9] insulin 胰島素。


      Intermittent feeding also improved the animals’ resistance[10] to a neurotoxin[11] that simulates Alzheimer’s disease. Mattson compared the brains of animals fed a low-calorie diet with those of animals that had eaten well. Calorie-restricted diets appeared to enhance the function of brain synapses[12] – the junctions between brain cells that promote the generation of new cells and make them more resistant to stress.


      間歇性喂食還可以提高這些動物對一種能夠模擬阿爾茨海默病的神經毒素的抗性。馬特森對比了低卡路里飲食和放開飲食的兩組動物的大腦。限制卡路里的飲食似乎可以提高大腦突觸的功能,而突觸是腦細胞之間的接觸點,能夠促進新細胞的形成,提高它們的壓力抗性。


      [10] resistance 抗性。

       

      [11] neurotoxin 神經毒素。

       

      [12] synapse 突觸。


      Calorie-restricted diet was also found to improve memory in older people. Cutting energy intake appears to inhibit the genes that promote ageing and switch on genes that slow ageing down.


      研究發現,限制卡路里的飲食法還能夠增強老年人的記憶力。減少能量攝入可以抑制推動衰老的基因,同時激活延緩衰老的基因。


      Mattson practises what he preaches, limiting himself to no more than 2,000–2,200 calories a day.


      馬特森身體力行,他將自己每天攝入的卡路里控制在2000卡到2200卡。


      (譯者單位:中國人民解放軍信息工程大學洛陽校區)

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