在线精品国产一区二区三区,欧美最猛性XXXXX大叫,亚欧美日韩香蕉在线播放视频

    <thead id="t1bbr"><dfn id="t1bbr"></dfn></thead>

    <nobr id="t1bbr"><cite id="t1bbr"><menuitem id="t1bbr"></menuitem></cite></nobr>

    <form id="t1bbr"></form>

      <em id="t1bbr"></em>

      英語世界
      18210244181 | 登錄 注冊
      公告
      英語世界第11期點評
      發布時間:2017年09月02日     發布人:nanyuzi  
      來源: 英語世界
      0
      字號 簡體 繁體 打印

      【原文】


      美德成于心,

      誠信見于行,

      文明貴于恒。


      本期原文是一條公益廣告,即以社會公眾利益為目的而設計的一種普及、非營利的廣告,具有效益性、現實性和號召性三大特點。在翻譯上,又可歸為“公示語翻譯”,既有普遍性,又有特殊性。


      普遍性,是指其具有一般翻譯的性質;特殊性,則指其特有的言簡意賅,捉人眼球。例如,“熱烈歡迎外國朋友來我校參觀指導!”,許多人會翻譯成“Warmly welcome foreign friends come to our school for inspection!”,實則,可以大大簡化為“Welcome to our school!”或“Our school welcome you!”。而“美食天堂,異彩平添”不必按字面意思譯成“Delicious heaven; Extraordinary splendor in riotous profusion”,而Food Paradise即可解決。至于“生意興隆通四海,財源茂盛達三江”,若譯成“Business is thriving, reaching out to the five continents of the world; Revenues are accruing, flowing in from the four corners of the earth”,則難以吸引大眾的注意,故不妨精煉為“Business booms far and near, profits net there and here”。


      可能因本次原文看似簡單,所以參賽者人數劇增。然而,“言簡意不簡”,許多譯文又過于簡單,典型的,如:①Virtue forms in mind; / Honesty shows in behavior; / Civilization lies in persistence. ②Virtue is established in souls, / Integrity is seen in actions, / Civilization is valued in perseverance.


      其中,一些關鍵字眼值得認真推敲。如“成于心”,將“成”譯成form、establish、shape、produce、become等都略顯簡單;這里表述的是一種心智的歷練過程,故不如用nurture、foster、cultivate等。至于“心”,如以往所述,有mind、heart、soul等之分。西方文化里,mind一般代表理智,heart則為多為情感,如英語說:My mind tells me “no”, but my heart tells me "yes". (我的理智對我說不,但我的情感卻令我屈從。)希拉里(Hillary)在回憶錄中說,她嫁給克林頓(Clinton)主要是followed her heart but not her mind,言外之意,若依理性而非情感,可能就不會嫁給他了。當然,實際運用中heart亦可包括理性成分,如:①若有人提出批評意見,我會非常在意的。(If someone says something critical I take it to heart.)②他告訴她,自己所做的一切都是為了她好。(He told her that he only had her interests at heart.)所以,heart比mind的涵義更廣。而soul則更多強調“deep feeling or emotion, the spiritual part of a person, believed to exist after death”,不乏宗教色彩,如:He believed his immortal soul was in peril. (他認為他不死的靈魂有墮入地獄的危險。)故應慎用。


      “見于行”,將“見”譯成see、exist、show亦略顯膚淺,不如manifest、evidence、reveal等貼切,而“行”又有behavior、action、conduct、deed等選擇。分析起來,①behavior: the reaction of something under specified circumstances,即具體環境中的行為;②action: something done (usually as opposed to something said), 即主要相對“言”的實際行動;③conduct: manner of acting or conducting yourself, namely a person’s way of behaving (behavioral attributes), the way a person behaves toward other people,即側重于人際關系方面的行為;④deed: a notable achievement,即多為褒義舉動。綜合考慮,似以action為宜。


      最后一句中的“文明”,參賽者大都按字面意思譯成了civilization,但其實經不住推敲。該詞的基本涵義為:A society in an advanced state of social development (e.g., with complex legal and political and religious organizations); the fact of becoming or state of being highly developed socially, with a system of government, methods of education etc. 即主要是對社會整體進步程度而言的,如: In 20 years they have reached the level of civilization it took our society a century to reach. (他們用二十年達到了我們社會花了一個世紀才達到的文明程度。)而這里指的主要是個人行為。類似的,有的用了culture,其實該詞本質上也是集體行為(all the knowledge, values and customs shared by a society or a group of people in a society)。容易誤譯的,如將一個人的“文化水平”譯成cultural level,實際應為educational background或schooling等。細加分析,這里的“文明”指的是個人素質,于是quality、quality people、good qualities便應進入首選范疇,如:①Quality people are essences in our quest for quality service. (優秀人員是提供高質素服務的先決條件。)②Those are good qualities that we would want in every employee.(這些都是我們想要每位員工都具備的良好素質。)③他有許多好的品質,其中最好的就是善良。(He has many good qualities, but his best quality is his kindness.)。有的譯者采用了這樣的句式:


      He who has great virtues has rooted his righteous behaviors in his heart deep.

      He who is a man of integrity only reveals himself from his acts followed.

      He who is a civilized citizen only shines in his persistence in behaviors related.


      顯示其閱讀范圍和素養,其思路也值得肯定;不足之處,在不夠確切和工整,故不妨修改如下:


      He who is virtuous has his righteousness rooted in the heart;

      He who is honest has his credibility manifested in actions; 

      He who is civil has his quality attested in persistence.


      就本質而言,“公示語”是一種在公眾場合看的語言,負載著某種社交的特殊使命,因而又要注重通俗、易接受。這就不能不涉及到之前論述過的漢英“意合”與“形合”的特點。簡言之,漢語是“意合”(Paratactic),即句中及句間的語法意義是靠其內在涵義和邏輯關系來表達的(The grammatical relations are conveyed by the connotations and logic contained within or between the sentences),而英語在性質上是一種“形合”(Hypotactic)的語言,即句中及句之間的成分是靠語言形式相連接(The dependent or subordinate construction or relationship of clauses are linked with connectives)。典型的例子,如“早知這樣,我就不來了”,譯為英文則要加上許多“零碎”:If I had known it earlier, I would not have come等。


      據此,該三句也可融合為:While virtue is nurtured in the heart, credibility has to be attested by one’s actions, and time ultimately proves good qualities. 在許多情況下,同樣可以收到公益廣告的宣傳效果。

      返回頂部

      查看更多

      查看更多
      在线精品国产一区二区三区,欧美最猛性XXXXX大叫,亚欧美日韩香蕉在线播放视频

      返回頂部

      查看更多

      查看更多