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      英語世界
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      翻譯擂臺第17期點評
      發布時間:2017年09月02日     發布人:nanyuzi  
      來源: 英語世界
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      【原文】


      [1]沈從文在上海中國公學教書時,對女學生張兆和情有獨鐘,于是開始不斷給她寫情書。張兆和出身江南名門,人又漂亮,身后不乏追求者。[2]她覺得老師追學生,很“不正經”,于是告到了校長胡適那里。[3]胡適笑著對她說:“這有什么關系?他又沒結婚?!睆堈缀蜔o言以對。[4]臨走,校長對學生說:“我知道沈從文頑固地愛你!”[5]經過沈從文四年的不懈努力,這對師生終成伉儷。這也成為中國文壇的一段佳話。


      沈從文,中國著名的小說家和文物學家;雖學歷不高,但才情很高。他的《邊城》自然、纏綿、細膩,幾近獲得諾貝爾文學獎。他與張兆和的戀情與婚姻,歷來為人們所樂道。


      [1]中,中國公學于1906年4月10日在上海開學,1912年中華民國成立后又得到了孫中山、黃興、宋教仁等的支持,曾改名為民國大學、中國大學,又有北京中國公學、重慶中國公學等,故根據其性質,“上海中國公學”不妨譯為the Chinese National University (Shanghai)。


      對“情有獨鐘”,參賽者有各種譯法,如fell in love with her、gave/show special preference/favor to (her)、had a crush on her、had a soft spot for her等,這里不妨稍加簡析。fall in love with sb. 一般加上at first sight指一見鐘情。preference的本義為a predisposition in favor of something,多指物,如:①As a student of high school, she gave special preference to the subject of physics.(她上中學時,特別喜歡物理課。)②中國古代文人對酒情有獨鐘,宋代女詞人李清照與酒也有很密切的關系。(Ancient Chinese literati showed preference to wine, including female poet Li Qingzhao in the Song Dynasty.)crush on somebody本義為temporary love of an adolescent,多用于年輕人之間帶有沖動的戀愛,如:Every girl on the campus has a crush on those handsome boys.(校園里的每個女孩都有自己迷戀的瀟灑帥哥。)而have a soft spot for亦多指事物,如:Children usually have a soft spot for sweeties.(兒童一般喜歡吃糖果。)即便指人,一般也是泛指,如:He has a soft spot for pretty girls.(他見了漂亮女孩兒就走不動道了。)故這些用在此處都不很恰當。


      就單相思而言,carry a torch for倒是可以考慮,其義為“to be in love with sb., especially sb. who does not love you in return”,但又不完全符合當時情景(因張當時只是礙于師生關系);相比而言,affection更為恰當,其本義是“a positive feeling of liking; a feeling of liking or caring”,而affection與love的關系是:Love is a special affection for a man or a woman, which is stronger than that for any other person.(愛情是對某個男人或女人比對其他任何人都更為強烈的特殊好感。)


      對于“名門”,有的參賽者用了blue blood,該詞指“a member of the aristocracy; from a royal or noble family”,即歐洲的貴族,似不大符合國情。silver spoon in the mouth可以考慮,如:She was born with a silver spoon in her mouth and has never done a day’s hard work in her life. (她出生于富貴人家,一生中從未做過一天苦活兒。)更多的參賽者用了renowned ancestry、legendary/prominent/famous/prestige family等,似都可以接受。還有一詞無人問津——estate,指較高的社會地位,如:The new medicare reform appeals to people of estate. (新的醫療保險改革受到上流社會的歡迎。)至于“追求者”,有的參賽者用了suitor,其義為a man who wants to marry a particular woman,即“求婚者”,似太早了些;而admirer又太有距離感,該詞釋義為“If you are an admirer of someone, you like and respect them or their work very much”,如:She is an admirer of his paintings. (她是他畫作的粉絲。)其中未必有情愛。此處更確切的,應為wooer、hunter、quester、pursuer等。


      故[1]不妨譯為:As a lecturer, Mr. Shen Congwen once taught at the Chinese National University (Shanghai). He reserved a special affection for a female student, Zhang Zhaohe, whose family was of a high estate in the south of the Yangtze River, and her beauty had attracted quite a number of wooers. 


      [2]中,前文的“于是開始不斷給她寫情書”不妨調整到這里,以與后文形成因果關系?!扒闀?,許多人用了love letters、sugar reports等,固然不錯,但在文學作品中更多用的是billet-doux,該詞源于17世紀的法文。


      對于“不正經”,有的用了misconduct,該詞意為“unacceptable behavior, especially by a professional person”,是分量很重的一個詞,讓人聯系到某些不軌行為,如:①His certain misconduct to female students has compromised his position as a teacher.(他對女學生的某些不雅舉止,已經使他不配再當教師了。)②李醫生嚴重瀆職的罪名終于被撤銷了。(Dr. Li was finally cleared of serious professional misconduct.)此處更為恰當的,應為decent,即得體、正派的。


      這里的“校長”有人用了headmaster、principal(許多參賽者將該詞與principle 相混淆),此二詞都是中小學校長,而dean是院長、系主任,顯然不合適。確切的應為chancellor、university president、prex、rector等,而在英美體系,現在用的更多的是Vice-Chancellor,例如:①As Vice-Chancellor I warmly welcome you to La Trobe University.(作為本校校長,熱烈歡迎你們光臨拉托貝大學。)②After the president stepped down, he became Vice-Chancellor of a university.(卸任總統后,他去一所大學當了校長。)值得注意的是,Vice-Chancellor現在通常不再是副校長,而是正校長,因Chancellor 通常由社會名流在名譽上擔任,如香港大學的Chancellor由特首擔任,牛津大學的由英國首相擔任等。故此,[2]不妨譯為:Having constantly received billets-doux from Shen, Zhang thought his behavior not decent for a university lecturer, and went to the office of Vice Chancellor Hu Shi to lodge a complaint. 


      [3]中,“胡適笑著對她說,‘這有什么關系?他又沒結婚’”,對其中的“笑”,許多人用了laugh,其實該詞多用于“a humorous anecdote or remark intended to provoke laughter; People also sometimes laugh when they feel nervous or are being unfriendly”,即頗有不敬之意,故應以smile 為宜:“usually shows pleasure or amusement; People smile when they are pleased or amused, or when they are being friendly”,即多為善意?!斑@有什么關系?”多被譯成“What does it matter?”“It doesn’t matter!”“What’s the matter?”等,固然不錯,但此處不妨“俏皮”一些,如“What is the fuss?”,即“有何大驚小怪”之意,如英語常說的:I don’t know what all the fuss is about.(我不知道為什么要這樣大驚小怪的。)此語雖略重,但with a smile又加以緩和,“對立而統一”?!八譀]結婚”,許多人譯成了“He is not married yet.”“He is still single.”等,但此處bachelor更準確,因指a man who has never been married,而single只是此時沒有married或無男女朋友;且bachelor一般認為更認真對待婚姻、更準備結婚(is more serious about marriage and ready to marry),如:He is the most eligible bachelor in Australia.(他是澳大利亞最為搶手的單身漢。)同時,可將兩句分開,以更富情節:“What is the fuss?” Hu responded with a smile, “Isn’t it pretty normal for a bachelor?” Zhang was quite at a loss for words.


      [4]中,“頑固地愛你”,盡顯民國文人用語風格;略帶夸張與幾分調侃。有的譯成“I know that he is incorrigibly obstinate in loving you”“On her leaving, Mr. Hu told her that ‘I know Mr. Shen has been loving you stiffly’”等,似可接受,但其語氣可更為舒緩、暢達:At last, professor Hu said: “For all I know, he stubbornly loves you!” 


      [5]中,“終成伉儷”,參賽者多譯成became husband and wife、this teacher and his student finally got married、they two finally made a couple等,有的還化用了俗語Mr. Shen shall have Ms. Zhang并注明:“The author borrowed the idiom ‘All shall be well, and Jack shall have Jill’ to make the target language more idiomatic.”但英文中為祝福之語,即“愿天下有情人終成眷屬”,此處似不完全吻合。故此,不妨譯為:After four years of unremitting effort, the lecturer finally married his student, leaving a much told tale in the Chinese literary circle.


      此段雖短,卻不乏起伏,峰回路轉,此韻味在譯文中亦應盡量有所體現。


      據回憶,在[3]中其實還有一段趣聞:原來,沈從文因為追求不到張兆和已經跑到胡適那里哭訴過,(……于是張兆和無言以對)。這里不妨添譯上去,以求完整:As a matter of fact, Shen had previously visited his boss to grumble about his failure in winning Zhang’s favor.

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