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      英語世界
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      No Time to Think
      發布時間:2018年06月01日     周坤 譯  
      來源: 英語世界
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      No Time to Think

      無暇思考


      By Kate Murphy

      文/凱特·墨菲



      One of the biggest complaints in modern society is being over-scheduled, overcommitted and overextended. Ask people at a social gathering how they are and the stock answer is “super busy,” “crazy busy” or “insanely busy.” Nobody is just “fine” anymore.


      現代社會中人們抱怨最多的就是日程太滿,負擔過重,勞累過度。社交寒暄中你問候一聲“最近咋樣?”,得到的回應絕對是清一色的“超忙”“忙暈了”,要不然就是“忙瘋了”,再也難聽到簡單的一聲“還好”。


      When people aren’t super busy at work, they are crazy busy exercising, entertaining or taking their kids to Chinese lessons. Or maybe they are insanely busy playing fantasy football, tracing their genealogy or churning their own butter.


      即便是不忙于工作,人們也一定在忙于鍛煉、玩樂,或者忙著帶孩子去上中文課。再不然,他們就可能在瘋狂地忙著玩夢幻足球,忙著對自家宗譜追根溯源,或者忙著自己在家煉制黃油。


      And if there is ever a still moment for reflective thought – say, while waiting in line at the grocery store or sitting in traffic – out comes the mobile device. So it’s worth noting a study published last month in the journal Science, which shows how far people will go to avoid introspection.


      如果有那么一個平靜的片刻可以用來反思,比如,在商場排隊等候或者堵車的時候,移動設備又冒出來了。因此上個月發表在《科學》雜志上的一篇研究論文便值得在此處一提了。這篇文章向我們展示了人們為了逃避自省究竟可以做到何種程度。

       

      “We had noted how wedded to our devices we all seem to be and that people seem to find any excuse they can to keep busy,” said Timothy Wilson, a psychology professor at the University of Virginia and lead author of the study. “No one had done a simple study letting people go off on their own and think.”


      文章的第一作者、弗吉尼亞大學心理學教授蒂莫西·威爾遜表示:“我們早就發現人們有多么沉迷于電子設備,而且不遺余力地尋找理由使自己陷于忙碌之中,只是從沒有人研究過如何讓人們自己擺脫忙碌,靜下心來思考?!?


      The results surprised him and have created a stir in the psychology and neuroscience communities. In 11 experiments involving more than 700 people, the majority of participants re-ported that they found it unpleasant to be alone in a room with their thoughts for just 6 to 15 minutes.


      研究的結果不僅令威爾遜教授感到驚訝,而且還在心理學與神經科學領域引起了轟動。在超過 700人參與的11組實驗中,大多數參與者表示,讓他們獨自待在一間房子里思考只要 6到 15分鐘就會感覺不適。


      …………


      It could be because human beings, when left alone, tend to dwell on what’s wrong in their lives. We have evolved to become problem solvers and meaning makers. What preys on our minds, when we aren’t updating our Facebook page or in spinning class, are the things we haven’t figured out – difficult relationships, personal and professional failures, money trouble, health concerns and so on. And until there is resolution, or at least some kind of understanding or acceptance, these thoughts reverberate in our heads. Hello rumination. Hello insomnia.


      這可能是因為人類在獨處的時候,容易去琢磨人生中哪里出了問題。我們已經進化出解決問題的能力,也會思考事情的意義所在。當我們沒在刷臉書或者上動感單車課的時候,心頭縈繞的便是那些沒解決的問題——情感上的困境,生活和工作上的失意,經濟上的窘迫,以及身體上的病痛,等等。除非這些難題有了解決方案,或者多少能夠想得通,否則它們就會一直纏繞在我們的腦中,揮之不去。緊接著,憂慮就隨之降臨了。然后,失眠也就接踵而至了。


      …………


      But you can’t solve or let go of problems if you don’t allow yourself time to think about them. It’s an imperative ignored by our culture, which values doing more than thinking and believes answers are in the palm of your hand rather than in your own head.


      但是如果你不給自己時間去思考,你就永遠也無法解決和擺脫這些問題。思考是必要的,只不過我們的文化忽略了它,因為我們的文化認為行動勝于思考,而且深信解決問題的答案是在手中而非腦中。


      “It’s like we’re all in this addicted family where all this busyness seems normal when it’s really harmful,” said Stephanie Brown, a psychologist in Silicon Valley and the author of “Speed: Facing Our Addiction to Fast and Faster – and Overcoming Our Fear of Slowing Down.” “There’s this widespread belief that thinking and feeling will only slow you down and get in your way, but it’s the opposite.”


      “而我們就好像都處在一個‘忙碌成癮’的家庭中,在這里所有的忙碌都是正常的,即便實際上它是非常有害的,”硅谷的心理學家、《速度:直面快速上癮癥——克服慢速恐懼癥》的作者斯蒂芬妮·布朗指出,“人們普遍認為思考和感受只會拖慢步伐,阻擋前進的道路,但事實上恰好相反?!?


      Suppressing negative feelings only gives them more power, she said, leading to intrusive thoughts, which makes people get even busier to keep them at bay. The constant cognitive strain of evading emotions underlies a range of psychological troubles such as obsessive-compulsive disorder, anxiety, depression and panic attacks, not to mention a range of addictions. It is also associated with various somatic problems like eczema, irritable bowel syndrome, asthma, inflammation, impaired immunity and headaches.


      她表示,刻意去抑制這些消極情緒只會讓其愈發強烈,讓人滋生出更消極的念頭,最后導致你為了躲避它們而不得不使自己變得更加忙碌。而逃避情緒帶來的持續認知緊張正是造成一系列心理問題的根源所在,譬如強迫癥、焦慮、抑郁以及恐懼癥,更不用說各種癮性疾病了。與此同時,這種認知緊張還會引發諸多身體問題,比如濕疹、腸道易激綜合征、哮喘、炎癥、免疫力受損和頭痛等。


      …………


      “I have a lot of people who come in and want to learn meditation to shut out thoughts that come up in those quiet moments,” said Sarah Griesemer, a psychologist in Austin, Tex., who incorporates mindfulness meditation into her practice. “But allowing and tolerating the drifting in of thoughts is part of the process.” Her patients, mostly hard-charging professionals, report being more productive at work and more energetic and engaged parents.


      得克薩斯州奧斯汀的一位心理學家薩拉·格里瑟將正念冥想融入了她的醫療實踐中,她說:“許多人想學習冥想,想借此摒棄安靜時大腦產生的雜念。但是允許并容忍雜念的進進出出,其實也是冥想的一部分?!彼幕颊?,大多都是強勢的職業人士,稱練習冥想后工作上變得更高效,在家庭育兒上也變得更加精力充沛,樂于投入。


      To get rid of the emotional static, experts advise not using first-person pronouns when thinking about troubling events in your life. Instead, use third-person pronouns or your own name when thinking about yourself. “If a friend comes to you with a problem it’s easy to coach them through it, but if the problem is happening to us we have real difficulty, in part because we have all these egocentric biases making it hard to reason rationally,” said Dr. Kross of Michigan. “The data clearly shows that you can use language to almost trick yourself into thinking your problems are happening to someone else.”


      要想擺脫“情緒靜電”的困擾,專家建議:在思考生活中的煩心瑣事時,不要使用第一人稱,可用第三人稱或自己的名字替代?!叭绻粋€朋友來向你咨詢某個問題,你會覺得很容易去開導他。但是如果問題發生在我們自己身上,事情就變得困難多了,部分原因是我們有自我為中心的偏見,這種偏見讓我們無法理性思考?!泵苄髮W的克洛斯教授說道,“數據很清楚地表明,你完全可以用語言令自己相信,問題不是發生在自己身上而是發生在他人身上?!?


      Hard as they sometimes are, negative feelings are a part of everyone’s life, arguably more so if you are crazy busy. But it’s those same deep and troubling feelings, and how you deal with them, that make you the person you are. While busyness may stanch welling sad-ness, it may also limit your ability to be overcome with joy.


      盡管有時候會很艱難,但負面情緒確實是每個人生活無法避免的一部分。尤其是我們超級忙的時候,可能負面情緒更甚。但另一方面,也就是這些深居內心的、令人不安的情緒,以及你處理這些情緒的方式,決定了你成為什么樣的人?;蛟S忙碌可以平復洶涌而出的悲傷情緒,但與此同時它也限制了你使自己開心快樂的能力。

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