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      英語世界
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      翻譯擂臺第29期點評
      發布時間:2018年12月03日     發布人:nanyuzi  
      來源: 英語世界
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      【原文】


      [1]早在中國遠古時代,戲曲的種子已經在歌舞中孕育了,進入階級社會后,這種歌舞藝術的傳統依然存留在廣大的農村中,并不斷革新發展以適應人民精神生活的需要。[2]至漢代,民間出現了帶有故事性的歌舞表演,如百戲中的《東海黃公》等。[3]隋唐時期,帶有喜劇性質的歌舞戲、參軍戲相繼問世,它們業已具備戲曲的雛型。[4]在宋代,隨著經濟的發展,城市中出現了新興的市民階層,反映他們生活和觀點的宋金雜劇院本應運而生,為其后元雜劇的形成奠定了基礎。

      —— 一丁


      中國的戲曲歷史悠久,與希臘悲喜劇、印度梵劇并稱為世界三大古老的戲劇文化,內涵豐富,形式多樣,異彩紛呈。


      [1]中,這里的“戲曲”顯然是指“中國戲曲”,可譯成Chinese opera,但更準確的應該是traditional Chinese opera,以表中國戲曲的特色。關于opera一詞,下面還有所涉及、分析。


      “早在中國遠古時代”,參賽者有多種譯法,如As early as in ancient China、It is since China’s ancient times that、Far in ancient China、Back in ancient China 等,似都不錯,但因下面還要涉及“中國戲曲”,為避免重復,此處譯為In ancient times即可。


      “戲曲的種子已經在歌舞中孕育了”,有參賽者譯為The seed of traditional Chinese opera was sowed in China’s song-and-dance dramas,sowed the seed固然可以,如:We sowed our vegetable seed yesterday. Have you sown yours?(昨天我們播下了菜籽, 你也播種了嗎?)同時,“孕育”還有用be pregnant with、inoculation、gestate、gestation等,但比較而言,這里不妨用breed,該詞義為to be the cause of something,如:①Nothing breeds success like success.(一事成功萬事亨通。)②The parents are trying to breed their son a musician.(父母盡力要把兒子培養成為音樂家。)


      “人民精神生活”,大都譯成了people’s spiritual life,但是推敲起來,spiritual在西方很容易讓人聯想到宗教,即:Spiritual means relating to people's thoughts and beliefs, rather than to their bodies and physical surroundings; Relating to religion or religious belief: (Collins COBUILD English Dictionary, 2012)相關的,如a spiritual approach to life、spiritual fulfillment、spiritual values、spiritual healing等。其實,此處實質要表述的是people’s cultural life。類似的,“群眾性精神文明創建活動”不是people’s creativity for spiritual and ideological activity,而宜為public activities to promote ethical and cultural progress等。


      順便而言,在漢英翻譯中,內容與詞語在語言層面有時似乎不“對稱”,如通常說的某個人的“文化水平”并不是cultural level,而是educational background、schooling等,但在內涵上卻是等值的。


      故此,該句不妨譯為:In ancient times, the seed of traditional Chinese opera was bred in songs and dances. After entering the class society, the artistic tradition of singing and dancing remained in vast rural areas, constantly innovating to meet the needs of people’s cultural life.


      [2]中,“帶有故事性的歌舞表演”,其中的“故事”參賽者多用了story、stories、storytelling等,如dramatic plays with story、music and dance performance with stories appeared in the folk、folk songs and dances of storytelling等,似乎不錯,但比較而言,narrative更為恰當, 該詞的本義為“a message that tells the particulars of an act or occurrence or course of events; presented in writing or drama or cinema or as a radio or television program”,如:In this narrative performance, information might appear in any order.(在這個故事性表演中,信息可能會以任何次序出現。)


      關于“民間”,很多人用了folk,固然該詞可以用作名詞,如:Due to many causes, there was cremation in the folk.(由于種種原因,民間火葬仍時有發生。)但更多情況下,該詞用作形容詞,如:①A military band played Russian marches and folk tunes.(一支軍樂隊演奏了俄羅斯的進行曲與民樂。)②Jack was a folk hero in the Greenwich Village bars.(在格林尼治村的酒吧里,杰克是人們心目中的英雄。)③The folk-song world was another of his abiding interests.(民歌是他另一個始終不渝的愛好。)此外,還有用among the people、nongovernmental、people-to-people等。其實,這里不妨選擇populace,其義為people in general considered as a whole,如:①The temple fair provided a unique public space for the populace to enjoy the leisure in rural society.(廟會為鄉下民眾提供了一個享受休閑的獨特公共場所。)②他受到當地大部分百姓的擁戴。(He has the support of large sections of the local populace.)。


      故此,該句不妨譯為:Up to the Han Dynasty (BC202—8, 23—220), narrative folk songs and dances became popular among the populace, such as “Duke Huang of the East Sea” of Bai opera.


      [3]中的“喜劇性質的歌舞戲”,許多人譯成comedy songs and dances,此處應用形容詞comedic,而“歌舞戲”為song-dance drama。


      “雛形”,一般英文有miniature、mold、prototype、precursor等,參賽譯文用得最多的是embryo,其本義為 an animal organism in the early stages of growth and differentiation that in higher forms merge into fetal stages but in lower forms terminate in commencement of larval life,不過此處最好用其形容詞形式,組成embryonic form。


      整句可譯為:During the Sui and Tang Dynasties (581—907), comedic song-dance drama and canjun opera, came into being one after another, shaping the embryonic form of traditional Chinese opera.


      [4]中,“新興的”(市民階層),參賽者用得最多的是emerging、mergence、new、give birth to、fresh等,如emerging citizen stratum arose in cities、the emergence of the citizen stratum、gave birth to the new citizen stratum、a class of fresh citizens emerged in the city等,都是可以接受的。類似的,如:①運籌學是一門新興的學科。(Operational Research is a newly emerging subject.)②He more or less railroaded the rest of Europe into recognizing the new “independent” states.(他幾乎是迫使其他歐洲國家承認了那些新興的“獨立”國家。)③他新興的事業生氣勃勃,前途光明。(His fresh enterprise is full of life and has a bright future.)此外還有rising、jumped-up等。但是,考慮到當時社會的盛世狀況,不妨選擇burgeoning,其本義為begin to grow or develop rapidly,如a burgeoning population(急劇增長的人口)、burgeoning demand(迅速增加的需求)等。


      同時,“市民階層”,在這里多少有些前現代社會性質的概念,似可用burgher class、civilians,但前者主要指某些歐洲國家中產階級的市民或鎮民,而后者是現代社會的一個法律概念,故不妨用中性的urban inhabitants。


      “元雜劇”,一般譯成了Yuan-Dynasty Zaju、Yuan-Dynasty zaju plays、zaju of the Yuan dynasty、Drama of the Yuan Dynasty、Yuan-Dynasty Opera which had combined all performance elements mentioned above等。其實,嚴格講,Opera不是中國的傳統藝術,盡管已有譯文如Beijing opera(京?。?、Peking opera(中國京?。?、Cantonese opera(粵?。?、Shaoxing/Yue opera(越?。┑?,但其本義為“a drama set to music; consists of singing with orchestral accompaniment and an orchestral overture and interludes”(特別是筆者所加下劃線部分,純屬西洋樂特色),如Puccini's operas(普契尼的歌?。?、the Vienna State Opera(維也納國家歌劇院)、light/grand opera(輕/大歌?。┑?。然而,為便于英語讀者接受,不妨“中和”一下,譯為Yuan zaju opera。同樣,“宋金雜劇院本”(宋叫“雜劇”,金叫“院本”,二者同一)也可作類似處理。


      故此,整句不妨譯為:With the economic growth, in the Song Dynasty (960—1279), the burgeoning urban inhabitants emerged together with Song and Jin zaju opera to reflect their life and views, laying the foundation for Yuan zaju opera to take form.


      顯然,翻譯中所追求的對等,不是詞面意義上的,而是實際內涵中的。


      優勝譯文:


      @飛吧


      The traditional Chinese opera originated from songs and dances at the very early stage in Chinese history. After entering the class society, the traditional song and dance art was still popular in vast rural areas, innovating and developing to meet the people's needs on spiritual life. In Han Dynasty, storytelling folk song and dance performance, such as Huang Gong of East Sea, an acrobatics opera, appeared. During Sui and Tang Dynasties, the song and dance drama and Canjun drama with comedy nature came out, which had some attributes of the traditional Chinese opera. With the development of economy in Song Dynasty, the citizen stratum emerged in cities, Zaju and Yuanben were born in Song and Jin Dynasties, which reflected the citizens’ life and views and laid the foundation for Zaju of the Yuan Dynasty.


      @Tracy ZHANG

       

      The earliest elements of traditional Chinese opera, or Xiqu, can be found in the singing and dancing tradition of great antiquity. With the strata of Chinese society taking shape, this tradition continued in rural areas and kept evolving as a form of mass entertainment. Narrative-style song-and-dance acts emerged among common people in the Han Dynasty. One example is the Baixi variety show “Huang Gong of the Eastern Sea”. Into the Sui and Tang Dynasties, more theatrical performances, such as song-and-dance dramas and “adviser-to-the-army” plays, came out in succession as the early forms of Chinese opera. In the Song Dynasty, with flourishing of the economy, urban residents emerged as a new stratum and the Zaju (literally “variety play”, also known as Yuanben in the Jin Dynasty) depicting their lives and views came into being. This laid the foundation for the creation of Yuan Zaju, dramas of the Yuan Dynasty.

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