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      How Andrew Carnegie Turned His Fortune into a Library Legacy
      發布時間:2017年04月01日     陳麗 譯  
      來源: 英語世界
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      How Andrew Carnegie Turned His Fortune into a Library Legacy

      圖書館:鋼鐵大王卡內基的遺產


      By Susan Stamberg

      文/蘇珊·施坦貝格


      Andrew Carnegie was once the richest man in the world. Coming as a dirt poor[1] kid from Scotland to the U.S., by the 1880s he’d built an empire in steel – and then gave it all away: $60 million to fund a system of 1,689 public libraries across the country.


      安德魯·卡內基一度是世界上最富有的人。他本是從蘇格蘭移民美國的一個窮小子,到19世紀80年代便建立起自己的鋼鐵王國——但后來又把財富全部捐出:6000萬美元建立了1689所公共圖書館,形成覆蓋全美的公共圖書館體系。


      [1] dirt poor〈俚〉極貧困的。


      Carnegie donated $300,000 to build Washington, D.C.’s oldest library – a beautiful beaux arts building[2] that dates back to[3] 1903. Inscribed above the doorway are the words: Science, Poetry, History. The building was “dedicated to the diffusion[4] of knowledge.”


      卡內基捐贈30萬美元,修建起華盛頓特區最早的圖書館——一棟非常漂亮的學院派風格建筑,歷史可以追溯到1903年。正門上方銘刻著“科學、詩歌、歷史”的字樣。整座建筑“專用于知識的傳播”。


      [2] 學院派建筑。Beaux Arts一詞源自法語,意指藝術作品,如今用之命名一種藝術風格:學院派藝術(又稱布雜藝術)。該風格源自巴黎高等藝術學院(école des Beaux-Arts)在課堂上教授學生的理念,1885至1920年期間發展并繁榮。塔形建筑群、裝飾性壁柱、欄桿、帶窗的陽臺等都是學院派建筑的特色所在。紐約市公共圖書館(New York Public Library)、紐約中央車站(New York’s Grand Central Terminal)以及波士頓公共圖書館(Boston Public Library)等,都是典型的學院派建筑。此處所說的圖書館指華盛頓特區的卡內基圖書館,據2016年12月的新聞報道,蘋果公司準備租賃該樓,建成一個蘋果零售店。

       

      [3] date back to追溯至。

       

      [4]diffusion擴散,傳播。


      It opened in 1903 to women, children, all races—African-Americans remember when it was the only place downtown where they could use the bathrooms. During the Depression[5], D.C.’s Carnegie Library was called “the intellectual breadline[6].” No one had any money, so you went there to feed your brain. Washington writer Paul Dickson, author of The Library in America, says the marble palace was an early and imposing Capitol[7] institution.


      “This went in well[8] before the monumental limestone and marble buildings of Pennsylvania Avenue, Constitution Avenue[9]. This was one of the first really beautiful public buildings,” he says.


      該圖書館于1903年開始運營,向婦女、兒童和所有種族的人敞開大門——黑人們回憶,在當時的市中心,他們唯一獲準使用其中廁所的建筑便是這個圖書館。大蕭條期間,華盛頓特區的卡內基圖書館被稱為“施舍知識的救濟堂”。大家都沒錢,所以盡管去卡內基圖書館,給大腦補充營養。華盛頓作家、《美國圖書館》一書的作者保羅·迪克森聲稱,這座大理石殿堂是國會山一帶修建較早的一座建筑,令人印象深刻。


      “它比賓夕法尼亞街和憲法街那些氣勢恢宏的石灰巖和大理石建筑早多了。它屬于最早一批修建起來的真正壯觀的公共建筑?!彼f。


      [5] 又稱the Great Depression經濟大蕭條,1929年始于美國股市崩潰,隨后席卷全球,一直持續到30年代晚期,是20世紀持續時間最長、影響最為廣泛深遠的一次經濟大蕭條。

       

      [6] breadline指排隊等待領取救濟食品的隊伍。on the breadline形容極度貧困的狀態。

       

      [7] Capitol= Capitol Hill國會山。它是華盛頓特區的一座山丘,因其山頂有美國國會大廈而常被當作美國國會的別名??▋然鶊D書館位于國會山地區,具體位于弗農山(Mt. Vernon)廣場附近,與華盛頓會議中心(Walter E. Washington Convention Center)隔廣場相望。

       

      [8] well此處是副詞,用于介詞短語前表示強調,意為“大大地,遠遠地”。

       

      [9] 賓夕法尼亞街和憲法街是國會山地區的兩條街道,有一些重要的歷史建筑,如賓夕法尼亞街上的白宮、福特中心等,憲法街的史密斯博物館、美國國家藝術博物館等。


      Carnegie libraries are still the best buildings in many towns. Over the years some have been expanded or torn down. And, in addition to books and computers, Carnegie libraries find new ways to serve the community.


      在許多城鎮,卡內基圖書館都仍是當地最好的建筑。隨著時間的流逝,有些圖書館擴建了,有些則被拆除了。除了書籍和電腦,卡內基圖書館還找到了新的途徑來服務社區。


      The public library in Woodbine, Iowa, loans cake pans  –  people don’t keep all sizes and shapes of cake pans at home, “so they check ’em out and bake their cakes and bring ’em back,” explains Woodbine library director Rita Bantam. “[It’s] offering a service that people need. It brings people into the library.”


      艾奧瓦州伍德拜恩市的卡內基公共圖書館出借蛋糕模具,因為普通人家里通常不會買齊所有規格和形狀的蛋糕模具,“所以人們可以來借模具,烤完蛋糕之后再還回來?!蔽榈掳荻鲌D書館主管麗塔·班塔姆解釋說,“這種服務是人們需要的。它會把人們聚到圖書館里來?!?

      Andrew Carnegie gave $7,500 to Woodbine. That paid for the building itself. The towns had to raise money for books, salaries and maintenance. Before Carnegie, Bantam says, the library was located in an unusual section of Woodbine’s town hall: “It was over the jail,” she explains, “they had to close the library when the jail was occupied.”


      安德魯·卡內基捐給伍德拜恩7500美元。這筆錢用于建造圖書館大樓。伍德拜恩當地市政得籌資購買書籍,支付工作人員工資,并負責圖書館維護。據班塔姆介紹,在卡內基出資之前,該市的圖書館坐落在伍德拜恩市鎮廳一個意想不到的角落:“和監獄在一處,”她解釋說,“如果監獄來了犯人,圖書館就得關閉?!?


      From jail to cakepans, public libraries are embedded[10] in their communities. In South Carolina, the Union County Carnegie Library – named best small library in America a few years back – invites Ronald McDonald[11] over to lure kids into summer reading programs. Director Ben Loftis says there were subscription[12] libraries in South Carolina before 1903 when his was built – with a $10,000 Carnegie grant – but this was the first public library.


      “It went from being for just the wealthy elite landowners and planters to actually being a service for the entire county that everybody has access to,” he says.


      從監獄到蛋糕模具,公共圖書館深深融入了當地社區。在南卡羅來納州,尤寧縣的卡內基圖書館幾年前曾榮獲全美最佳小型圖書館的稱號。該圖書館邀請麥當勞叔叔來到圖書館,以吸引孩子們參加暑期閱讀計劃。主管本·洛夫蒂斯聲稱,在卡內基捐款1萬美元于1903年建成該圖書館之前,南卡羅來納有一些收費的會員制圖書館,而該館是第一座公共圖書館。


      “以前那些只面向農場主、種植園主等有錢精英階層,這個則是真正面向全縣公眾的,每個人都能來?!彼f道。


      [10] embed使插入。

       

      [11] 麥當勞叔叔是身穿黃色小丑衣的一個人物形象,是麥當勞快餐連鎖店的招牌吉祥物和企業形象代言人,羅納德·麥當勞是其官方名稱。

       

      [12] subscription(俱樂部的)會員費。


      …………


      Was he the Bill Gates of his day? “I think Bill Gates would very much like to be known as the Carnegie of his day,” says Nasaw.


      他是他那個時代的比爾·蓋茨嗎?“我倒覺得比爾·蓋茨會很愿意別人稱他為這個時代的卡內基?!奔{莎說道。


      In 1889 Carnegie wrote an article called “The Gospel of Wealth,” in which he spelled out his views on philanthropy: “In bestowing charity the main consideration should be to help those who help themselves.”


      1889年,卡內基寫了一篇題為“財富的福音”的文章,闡明了他對慈善事業的看法:“在決定慈善捐贈的時候,主要的考慮應該是幫助那些自助的人?!?


      The rich should give, so the poor could improve their own lives – and thus the lives of the society. Giving was a code of honor. “The man who dies rich dies in disgrace,” Carnegie said.


      富人應該給予,以便窮人能夠改善自己的生活——并從而提高全社會的生活質量。給予是榮譽的準則?!耙粋€有錢人如果到死還是很有錢,那就是一件可恥的事情?!笨▋然f。


      …………

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