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      Reclaiming Travel
      發布時間:2017年05月01日     李亞芬 譯  
      來源: 英語世界
      字號 簡體 繁體 打印

      Reclaiming Travel


      By IlanStavans&Joshua Ellison


      What compels us to leave home, to travel to other places? The great travel writer Bruce Chatwin[1] described nomadism as an “inveterate impulse”, deeply rooted in our species. The relentless movement of the modern world bears this out[2]: our relative prosperity has not turned us into a sedentary[3] species. The World Tourism Organization, an agency of the United Nations, reported nearly a billion tourist arrivals in 2011. Some 200 million people are now living outside their country of birth.


      [1](1889—1940),英國現代旅行作家,代表作《巴塔哥尼亞高原上》(In Patagonia)曾獲“豪森登獎”(Hawthornden Prize)和“福斯特獎”(E. M. Forster Award)。


      [2] bear out支持;證明。


      [3] sedentary定棲的;不遷徙的。

      This type of massive movement – the rearrangement, temporary or permanent, of multitudes[4] – is as fundamental to modern life as the Internet, global trade or any other sociopolitical developments. Certainly, many of our most intractable[5] collective challenges as a society are directly linked to our mobility: urbanization, environmental depletion[6], scarcity and, of course, immigration. An immigrant is a traveler without a return ticket.


      [4] multitude人群。


      [5] intractable很難對付(或處理)的。


      [6] depletion耗盡,枯竭。

      In the Bible, the human journey begins with an expulsion[7]. God’s cho?sen people are also those condemned to[8] wander. Not only wander, but wonder: Why are we in exile? Where is home? Can this rupture[9] ever be repaired? Gilgamesh[10], the Icelandic sagas and The Odyssey[11] are all about the itinerant[12] life. Yet these characters don’t see travel as we moderns do. They embark on journeys of mythic significance – the literature of travel in the pre-modern era did not recognize travel for leisure or self-improvement. Today, our approach to travel is defined not by archetypal[13] imagery but, rather, according to our own mostly prosaic[14] trips.


      [7] expulsion驅逐。


      [8] be condemned to注定;落得個……下場。


      [9] rupture斷裂。


      [10] 人類歷史上第一部史詩,講述了英雄吉爾伽美什一生的傳奇故事。


      [11] 古希臘史詩,主要講述希臘英雄奧德修斯在特洛伊戰爭后航海返鄉的奇幻經歷。


      [12] itinerant流動的;四處奔波的。


      [13] archetypal原型的。


      [14] prosaic沒有詩意(或美感)的;平淡的。


      Travel is a search for meaning, not only in our own lives, but also in the lives of others. The humility required for genuine travel is exactly what is missing from its opposite extreme, tourism.


      Modern tourism does not promise transformation but rather the possibility of leaving home and coming back without any significant change or challenge. Tourists may enjoy the visit only because it is short. The memory of it, the retelling, will always be better. Whereas travel is about the unexpected, about giving oneself over to disorientation[15], tourism is safe, controlled and predetermined[16]. We take a vacation, not so much to discover a new landscape, but to find respite[17] from our current one, an antidote[18] to routine.


      [15] disorientation迷失方向;迷惑。


      [16] predetermined預先決定的。


      [17] respite稍事休息;解脫。


      [18] antidote解毒藥;〈喻〉矯正法。

      There are still traces of the pilgrimage, even in tourism, though they have become warped[19] and solipsistic[20]. Holy seekers go looking for oracles, tombs, sites of revelation. Tourists like to visit ruins, empty churches, battlefields, memorials. Tourist kitsch[21] depends on a sterilized[22] version of history and a smug[23] assurance that all of our stories of the past are ultimately re-demptive[24] – even if it is only the tourists’ false witness that redeems them. There’s no seeking required, and no real challenge, because the emotional voyage is preprogrammed. The world has become a frighteningly small place.


      [19] warped歪曲的;〈非正式〉反常的。


      [20] solipsistic我論的;自我中心。


      [21] kitsch投人所好的;迎合低級趣味的。


      [22] sterilize消毒。


      [23] smug自命不凡的。


      [24] redemptive救贖的。

      The planet’s size hasn’t changed, of course, but our outsize egos have shrunk[25] it dramatically. We might feel we know our own neighborhood, our own city, our own country, yet we still know so little about other individuals, what distinguishes them from us, how they make their habitat into home.


      [25] shrink收縮;減少。

      This lack of awareness is even more pronounced when it comes to different cultures. The media bombards[26] us with images from far-away places, making distant people seem less foreign, more relatable[27] to us, less threatening. It’s a mirage, obviously. The kind of travel to which we aspire should tolerate uncertainty and discomfort. It isn’t about pain or excessive strain – travel doesn’t need to be an extreme sport – but we need to permit ourselves to be clumsy[28], inexpert and even a bit lonely. We might never understand travel as our ancestors did: our world is too open, relativistic[29], secular[30], demystified[31]. But we will need to reclaim[32] some notion of the heroic: a quest for communion[33] and, ultimately, self-knowledge.


      [26] bombard一下子拋給;提供過多信息。


      [27] relatable有關聯的。


      [28] clumsy笨拙的;無技巧的。


      [29] relativistic相對性的。


      [30] secular世俗的。


      [31] demystify弄清楚,解開……的謎團。


      [32] reclaim取回。


      [33] communion(思想感情的)交流,交融。

      Our wandering is meant to lead back toward ourselves. This is the paradox[34]: we set out on adventures to gain deeper access to ourselves; we travel to transcend our own limitations. Travel should be an art through which our restlessness finds expression. We must bring back the idea of travel as a search.


      [34] paradox悖論。